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Nethrajeith Srinivasalu, Chanyi Lu, Miaozhen Pan, Peter Sol Reinach, Yingying Wen, Yang Hu, Jia Qu, Xiangtian Zhou; Role of Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate in Myopic Scleral Remodeling in Guinea Pigs: A Microarray Analysis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2018;59(10):4318-4325. doi: 10.1167/iovs.17-224685.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Myopia induction accompanies increased scleral cyclic adenosine phosphate (cAMP) levels and collagen degradation in mammalian models. We compared the scleral gene expression changes following monocular form deprivation (FD) with those induced by adenylate cyclase activation with forskolin (FSK) in guinea pigs.
Guinea pigs were assigned to FD, FSK-treated, and age-matched (AM) control groups. FSK was injected monocularly into the inferior palpebral subconjunctiva daily for 4 days. After scleral RNA extraction, a gene microarray scanner and software were used to evaluate the gene expression patterns, followed by pathway analysis using Gene Ontology tools. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to analyze the expression of 10 candidate genes in separate sets of form-deprived, vehicle-injected, and AM animals.
FSK injections differentially regulated 13 collagen subtypes compared to AM and FD groups. FSK also downregulated Acta2 and Tgf-β2 compared to the AM eyes. Collagen subtypes and Acta2 underwent larger downregulation in the FSK group than during FD. FSK differentially regulated Rarb, Rxrg, Fzd5, Ctnnd2, Dkk2, and Dkk3, which have been linked to ocular growth. Only a few genes were differentially expressed between the FD and AM groups. There was 80% agreement in the direction of gene regulation between microarray and qPCR results. No significant differences were identified between vehicle-injected and AM eyes.
Collagen, a major scleral extracellular matrix component, is degraded during myopia. Given that FSK and FD both promote myopia through increased collagen degradation, targeting cAMP signaling pathway genes could suppress myopia development.
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