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Dirk-Henning Menz, Nicolas Feltgen, Helge Menz, Bernd-Kristof Müller, Thorsten Lechner, Joachim Dresp, Hans Hoerauf; How to Ward Off Retinal Toxicity of Perfluorooctane and Other Perfluorocarbon Liquids?. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2018;59(12):4841-4846. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-24698.
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Reactive and underfluorinated impurities are acknowledged as a source of cytotoxicity of perfluorocarbon liquids (PFCLs) used as blood substitutes. To determine whether this is also a relevant factor in retinal toxicity, we analyzed eight PFO batches associated with adverse ocular events.
(A) The amount of reactive and underflurinated impurities was analyzed by fluoride-selective potentiometry and expressed as H-value. (B) Cytotoxicity of these batches was determined by an ISO 10993-5-compliant extractive test and compared to published data generated with a direct-contact method. (C) A toxic PFO batch (061014) was purified to remove reactive and underfluorinated impurities. (A) and (B) -measurements were repeated after that. (D) The dose dependence of the H-value and cytotoxicity was determined in a dilution experiment.
(A) The batches revealed H-values ranging from 1.400 ppm to 4.500 ppm. (B) All batches induced cell growth inhibition; seven must be classified as cytotoxic. Findings from ISO-conform extractive and direct-contact methods showed no difference. (C) After all reactive and underfluorinated impurities in batch 061014 were removed, the H-value dropped to <10 ppm and cytotoxicity disappeared. (D) Cytotoxicity increases gradually as the H-value rises.
The clinical relevance of the H-value as a safety parameter for PFO endotamponades could be proven. The H-value is a measure for reactive and underfluorinated impurities that cause toxicity of PFCLs and should be incorporated in each endotamponade specification with a limit of 10 ppm to prove the effectiveness of the ultra-purification required and ensure a safe product. Despite the fact that an (ISO)-standard literally is a “standard” only, which cannot cover all imaginable possibilities, the incorporation of the H-value determination into the relevant ISO standard has been initiated. If a thorough risk assessment results in risks that cannot be detected and/or managed by the effective standard, additional investigations have to be performed.
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