Open Access
Special Issue  |   November 2018
Secreted Mucins on the Ocular Surface
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Yuichi Hori
    Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
  • Correspondence: Yuichi Hori, Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University Graduate School of Medicine, 6-11-1, Omori-Nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-8541, Japan; yhori@med.toho-u.ac.jp
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science November 2018, Vol.59, DES151-DES156. doi:10.1167/iovs.17-23623
  • Views
  • PDF
  • Share
  • Tools
    • Alerts
      ×
      This feature is available to authenticated users only.
      Sign In or Create an Account ×
    • Get Citation

      Yuichi Hori; Secreted Mucins on the Ocular Surface. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2018;59(14):DES151-DES156. doi: 10.1167/iovs.17-23623.

      Download citation file:


      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

      ×
  • Supplements
Abstract

Mucins, which play important roles on the ocular surface in wettability, lubrication, and barrier function, are classified into two categories: secreted mucins and membrane-associated mucins. The most important secreted mucin on the ocular surface is MUC5AC, which is secreted by the conjunctival goblet cells. In the human conjunctiva, goblet cells are present in higher concentrations in the fornix, inferior nasal bulbar, and the lid wiper on the lid margin. The number of conjunctival goblet cells and MUC5AC expression/secretion are decreased in a patient with dry eye. In Japan, drugs that stimulate mucin secretion or increase the number of conjunctival goblet cells are commercially available. A P2Y2 receptor, diquafosol, stimulates tear fluid secretion from conjunctival epithelial cells and promotes mucin secretion from conjunctival goblet cells. Rebamipide was marketed originally as an oral therapeutic drug to treat gastritis in Japan. Topical rebamipide increases numbers of goblet cells in the bulbar conjunctiva and the lid wiper area of palpebral conjunctiva. Many researchers have reported decreases in the ocular surface mucin expression including MUC5AC secreted by goblet cells in patients with dry eye. However, it is unknown whether changes in mucin expression on the ocular surface cause or result from dry eye. Further study is needed to determine the true mechanism of dry eye disease.

Mucins are heavy molecular glycoproteins formed by numerous sugar chains linked to a core protein called apomucin, with 50% to 80% of their mass comprised of carbohydrate.1 In mucins, N-acetylgalactosamine is linked to serine or threonine, which are two of the amino acids of the protein core, in what is called an O-type glycosylation. The mucin structure is characterized by the area of the mucin protein core called the tandem repeat (repeated sequence domain), which is rich in amino acids such as serine and threonine that link to the sugar chains via O-glycosylation.1,2 
Mucin can be classified broadly by its structural characteristics as secreted mucins and membrane-associated mucins. The former can be classified further into gel-forming mucins and soluble mucins. Gel-forming mucins are, in turn, classified further into the following subtypes: MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6, and MUC19,38 and soluble mucins are classified into subtypes MUC7 and MUC9.9,10 
Mucin has many important roles on the ocular surface (i.e., maintenance of lacrimal fluid, lubrication of the ocular surface to facilitate smooth blinking, formation of a smooth spherical surface for good vision, provision of a barrier for the ocular surface, and trapping and removing pathogens and debris).2,11 At least four subtypes of secreted mucins (MUC5AC, MUC7, MUC2, and MUC19)1215 and four types of the membrane-associated mucins (MUC1, MUC4, MUC16, and MUC20)1619 are expressed on the ocular surface in the mRNA and/or protein levels. Of the secreted mucins, gel-forming mucin MUC5AC is believed to be expressed most prevalently on the ocular surface and is secreted from the conjunctival goblet cells into the tear fluid. MUC7, a soluble mucin with a small molecular mass, is expressed in the acinar cells of the lacrimal glands.13 MUC2 and MUC19 are thought to have lower expression levels on the ocular surface.14,15 
The conjunctival goblet cells that secrete MUC5AC are scattered on the conjunctival epithelium (Figs. 1A, 1B). Eyelid movement during blinking evenly spreads MUC5AC secreted from the goblet cells into the lacrimal fluid over the entire ocular surface to maintain its wettability and lubrication (Fig. 2).2,20 The distribution of goblet cells varies depending on the anatomic location. In the human conjunctiva, goblet cells are present in higher concentrations in the fornix, and in particular, in the inferior nasal fornix near the exit of the tear drainage system.11,20,21 Knop et al. recently reported that goblet cells are abundant in the lid wiper portion of the lid margins to facilitate lubrication of the ocular surface during blinking.22,23 Kase et al.24 also found significantly more goblet cells in the lid wiper than the palpebral conjunctiva in a study of 30 eyelid tissues surgically removed due to involutional entropion. Goblet cell expression likely increases in the area subjected to more friction from blinking between the eyelid and cornea and between the eyelid and bulbar conjunctiva. As such, goblet cells are abundant on the ocular surface, and the MUC5AC secreted from them contribute to maintaining the homeostasis of the ocular surface. 
Figure 1
 
Impression cytology of human conjunctiva. After topical anesthesia is applied, cellulose acetate filters (4 × 6 mm) are pressed onto the bulbar conjunctiva (A). PAS staining of the impression cytology sample (bulbar conjunctiva) (B). Positive cells represent goblet cells.
Figure 1
 
Impression cytology of human conjunctiva. After topical anesthesia is applied, cellulose acetate filters (4 × 6 mm) are pressed onto the bulbar conjunctiva (A). PAS staining of the impression cytology sample (bulbar conjunctiva) (B). Positive cells represent goblet cells.
Figure 2
 
MUC5AC expression on the human conjunctiva. A cross section of human conjunctiva is labeled with fluorescein-labeled MUC5AC (antibody 781 provided by Ilene Gipson) to demonstrate mucin secreted from goblet cells.
Figure 2
 
MUC5AC expression on the human conjunctiva. A cross section of human conjunctiva is labeled with fluorescein-labeled MUC5AC (antibody 781 provided by Ilene Gipson) to demonstrate mucin secreted from goblet cells.
The conjunctiva is innerved by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, the nerve endings of which surround the goblet cells at the level of the secretory granules.25 Goblet cells have muscarinic receptors of M3 and M2 subtypes for neurotransmitters released from parasympathetic nerves including acetylcholine (Ach) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP).25,26 The parasympathetic nerves release Ach and VIP, which stimulate goblet cell secretion through M3 and M2 muscarinic receptors.2527 
Goblet cells are associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Several studies have reported that the EGFR-signaling pathway serves an important role in goblet cell proliferation and mucin secretion in rat conjunctiva.2729 Kanno et al.27 reported that carbachol, a cholinergic agonist, transactivated the EGFR to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), leading to conjunctival goblet cell secretion. This indicates that the mucin secretion from conjunctival goblet cells is under neural control. 
Secreted mucin is thought to contribute to tear fluid stabilization because of its ability to promote water retention on the ocular surface for long periods by binding to and gelling with a large number of water molecules.2,11 In addition, secreted mucin might suppress epithelial damage resulting from friction when the eyelid comes into contact with the epithelium during blinking, because it acts as a lubricating agent to reduce ocular surface friction. Furthermore, secreted mucin is also thought to trap and remove debris and harmful pathogens as a barrier function.2,11 However, the inherent function of secreted mucin MUC5AC on the ocular surface is unknown, because of the difficulty of using animal model testing to demonstrate secreted mucin. Only a few studies of the ocular surface have used Muc5ac-knockout mice.30,31 Marko et al. reported that Muc5b expression increased as a compensatory mechanism in the Muc5ac-knockout mice, and no findings indicated signs of dry eye, such as inflammatory change, keratoconjunctival epithelial disorder, or decreased lacrimal fluid in the Muc5ac-knockout mice.31 The SAM pointed domain-containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) promotes differentiation of conjunctival goblet cells.32 Marko et al. conducted an experiment with SPDEF-knockout mice and reported that, although those mice lacked conjunctival goblet cells, lacrimal secretion increased in a compensatory manner, thereby preventing dry eye.32 Further studies should elucidate the functions of MUC5AC on the ocular surface. 
Changes in Numbers of Goblet Cells and MUC5AC Expression in Ocular Surface Disease
Several studies have reported decreased MUC5AC secretion by goblet cells in patients with dry eye.33,34 Argueso et al.33 reported that MUC5AC expression was significantly lower in the tear fluid and conjunctival epithelial cells in patients with Sjögrens syndrome compared with normal individuals. Shimazaki-Den et al.34 also reported that MUC5AC expression levels in the conjunctival epithelium were significantly lower in patients with aqueous deficiency–type dry eye and dry eye with a short tear film breakup time. 
In a murine experiment, Muc5AC expression increased in response to interleukin 13, a Th2 cytokine, and decreased in response to IFN-γ, a Th1 cytokine.35,36 Pflugfelder et al. further compared patients with aqueous tear deficiency or meibomian gland dysfunction and a control group and discovered that IFN-γ, goblet cell density, and MUC5AC expression decreased significantly in the conjunctiva of patients with aqueous tear deficiency.37 The authors concluded that decreased tear fluid on the ocular surface increased IFN-γ expression, which consequently reduced the goblet cell count and MUC5AC expression.37 
Changes in MUC5AC expression also have been reported in allergic eye diseases. Kunert et al. reported a significant decrease in the conjunctival goblet cell count and Muc5AC expression in the conjunctiva in mouse allergic conjunctivitis models.38 Dogru et al.39 reported that the MUC16 and MUC5AC expression levels decreased significantly in the conjunctival epithelial cells in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis. 
As described previously, conjunctival goblet cells and mucin expression decrease in ocular surface diseases, particularly in dry eye, which emphasizes the need to develop drugs that increase mucin expression and secretion. 
Dry Eye Therapies and Their Effect on Mucin Production
To date, several drugs or agents have been reported to induce mucin expression or secretion by the ocular surface epithelia. These are good treatments for dry eye, especially for the mucin deficiency type of dry eye. 
The 2007 International Dry Eye Workshop report, “Tear stimulation: Secretagogues,” which stimulate aqueous or mucous secretion or both, described the drugs as future potential topical pharmacologic agents for treating dry eye, including diquafosol, rebamipide, gefarnate, ecabet sodium (mucous secretion stimulants), and 15(S)-HETE (an MUC1 stimulant).40 In 2017, the Tear Film & Ocular Surface Society launched the Dry Eye Workshop II, which reported several topical pharmacologic agents that stimulate aqueous, mucin, and/or lipid secretion as secretagogues, including diquafosol, lacritin, rebamipide, galectin-3, mycophenolate mofetil, trefoil factors, and nerve growth factor.41 In Japan, drugs are commercially available that stimulate mucin secretion or normalize the ocular surface mucosa to increase the number of conjunctival goblet cells and used as the first-choice treatments for dry eye, including diquafosol and rebamipide. 
Recent Progress in Japan Regarding Secreted Mucins: Secreted Mucin Study in Epidemiologic Survey in Japan
To investigate the prevalence of dry eye in patients who use visual display terminals (VDTs), a large epidemiologic survey was performed at a company in Osaka, Japan (Osaka Study, see section on epidemiology).42 Among many published manuscripts associated with the Osaka Study, two papers have reported alterations in tear MUC5AC levels in office workers who use VDTs.43,44 Uchino et al. reported that office workers with prolonged daily use of VDTs (>7 hours) had significantly low MUC5AC concentrations in their tears.43 They also reported in the other manuscript that cigarette smoking in office workers decreased goblet cell density and tear MUC5AC concentrations significantly.44 
New Therapeutic Approach for Treatment of Dry Eye
Regarding secretory mucins, other areas of interest and progress in research in Japan are in the mucin production therapies (i.e., the secretagogues, which stimulate mucous secretion) for treating dry eye.40 In Japan, two new secretagogue eyedrops were launched in December 2010 and January 2012, respectively, to treat dry eye: diquafosol and rebamipide. Both drugs induce expression of MUC5AC secreted from conjunctival goblet cells. Several investigators have reported the effects of these drugs in basic and clinical research. 
Diquafosol (Diquas Ophthalmic Solution 3%; Santen Pharmaceutical, Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) is a potent, purinergic P2Y2 receptor agonist. Generally speaking, P2Y2 receptor agonists act on P2Y2 receptors in cellular membranes and activate phospholipase C via G proteins to produce inositol triphosphate. Thus, calcium ion (Ca2+) release is induced from the cell endoplasmic reticulum, which elevates intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and induces various physiologic responses.45 P2Y2 receptors have been found at a number of ocular sites (i.e., the palpebral and bulbar conjunctival epithelium, conjunctival goblet cells, corneal epithelium, and meibomian glands).45,46 Regarding the mechanism of action, after binding to P2Y2 receptors, diquafosol stimulates tear fluid secretion from conjunctival epithelial cells and promotes mucin secretion from conjunctival goblet cells.47 Diquafosol decreased the periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-positive staining area in a dose-dependent manner immediately after instillation.48 When diquafosol was applied at concentrations exceeding 0.1%, the PAS-positive staining area was maximally decreased and reached nearly 40%.45 These results suggested that diquafosol stimulated mucin secretion from the conjunctival goblet cells. A similar stimulatory effect on mucin secretion was observed in evaluations of the PAS-positive staining areas using conjunctival histopathologic samples from normal rats.49 Hori et al. reported that the MUC5AC level in rabbit tears increased 15 minutes after instillation of 3% diquafosol tetrasodium eyedrops.50 In addition to MUC5AC, Takaoka-Shichijo and Nakamura reported that diquafosol increased the mRNA expression of membrane-associated mucins, MUC1, MUC4, and MUC16, after a 3-hour incubation with 100 μM diquafosol in cultured human corneal epithelial cells.51 
To date, many studies have reported the effectiveness of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution for treating many types of dry eye, including the aqueous deficient type,52,53 short tear film breakup time type,5456 laser in situ keratomileusis–associated dry eye,57,58 and obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction.59 Nowadays, this product has been approved in several Asian countries, including Japan, South Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam. 
Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension (Mucosta Ophthalmic Suspension UD2% ; Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was approved for treating dry eye at the end of 2011 and was launched in Japan in 2012. Rebamipide was marketed originally in 1990 in Japan as an oral therapeutic drug to treat gastric mucosal disorders and gastritis. To date, rebamipide for gastritis have been approved in several countries in Asia, including Japan, South Korea, China, Russia, and India. The agent improves the quality of gastric ulcer healing and reduces the recurrence rate of ulcers.60 The major properties of rebamipide are the stimulation of prostaglandin and mucus glycoprotein synthesis and inhibition of reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and neutrophil activation.60 
Urashima et al. reported that rebamipide increased the number of conjunctival goblet cells in normal rabbits61 and the presence of mucin-like substance contents on the ocular surface in the N-acetylcysteine–treated rabbit model.62 Biologically, goblet cells are associated with the EGFR signaling pathway, the activation of which leads to goblet cell metaplasia and mucin secretion from the cells.28 Rios et al.29 reported that rebamipide activated the EGFR-signaling pathway and induced proliferation of cultured rat conjunctival goblet cells. Ohguchi et al.63 showed that rebamipide increased the expression of muc5 mRNA on the ocular surface using superoxide dismutase-1 knockout mice. 
In human conjunctiva, Kase et al.64 reported that topical rebamipide administration for 3 months increased markedly the number of goblet cells histologically in patients with conjunctival hyperemia and that topical rebamipide induced the number of EGFR-positive cells and goblet cells in the lid wiper of human conjunctiva and bulbar conjunctiva.24 These data indicated that topical rebamipide might decrease the friction during blinking by increasing the mucin levels on the ocular surface. 
In addition to increasing the number of conjunctival goblet cells and MUC5AC expression, rebamipide affects the human corneal epithelial cells. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that rebamipide increased membrane-associated mucins in mRNA and protein levels in the cultivated human corneal epithelial cells.65,66 Uchino et al.66 reported that rebamipide increased MUC16 protein biosynthesis in the cultured human corneal epithelial, but not MUC1, MUC4, or MUC20. Two Japanese groups reported that rebamipide increased transmembrane electric resistance and protected TNF-α–induced disruption of the barrier function in cultured human corneal cells.67,68 
Generally speaking, the goblet cell density decreased significantly after ocular surgery and/or application of the postoperative eyedrops, such as the topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. In a clinical study, Kato et al.69 reported that rebamipide significantly increased the number of conjunctival goblet cells 14 days after vitrectomy. They also reported the results of a randomized clinical trial that compared the goblet cell density after cataract surgery with diclofenac versus diclofenac and rebamipide.70 The reduction of the goblet cell density was significantly suppressed by the concomitant use of topical rebamipide.70 
Comparison of Diquafosol and Rebamipide
As secretagogues, both diquafosol and rebamipide are useful for treating dry eye in Japan (see section on TFOT and TFOD). To clarify the difference between diquafosol and rebamipide, we compared the short-term changes in tear volume after instilling these eyedrops in normal rabbits.71 The tear meniscus area increased significantly up to 30 minutes after instillation of diquafosol compared with rebamipide.71 We also compared the short-term effects on the MUC5AC level in rabbit tear fluid and conjunctival goblet cells after instilling both eyedrops.50 Only diquafosol increased the MUC5AC level 15 minutes after one instillation.50 These results suggested that diquafosol promotes rapid secretion of MUC5AC from conjunctival goblet cells into the tear film after instillation. We hypothesized that diquafosol might improve tear fluid stability in the short term with its stimulatory effect on the tear fluid and mucin secretion via the P2Y2 receptor; on the other hand, rebamipide might improve the mucosal epithelia and increase the goblet cell numbers, which cure the ocular surface in patients with dry eye. Further studies should be performed to clarify the difference between these two drugs. 
Future Directions
Many researchers have investigated the structure, function, or regulation of secreted mucins on the ocular surface worldwide. Traditionally, the tear film was thought to have three distinct layers: a 0.1- to 0.2-μm-thick superficial lipid layer, a 7- to 8-μm-thick aqueous layer, and a mucin layer up to 30 μm thick, which contains the secreted mucin MUC5AC and the membrane-associated mucins.11 However, to date, that hypothesis has changed completely, and now there are thought to be two layers: a superficial lipid layer and an aqueous layer that contains secreted mucin MUC5AC dispersed within it.11 In the future, an optical system capable of detecting the distribution of secreted mucins in the tear film should be established. 
Mucins play important roles on the ocular surface by contributing to the wettability, lubrication, and barrier function on the ocular surface. In dry eye, because the expression of both secreted and membrane-associated mucins is decreased, those functions are disrupted on the ocular surface. However, it remains unknown whether the alteration of mucin expression is a cause of or results in dry eye. Further study is needed to elucidate the true mechanism of dry eye disease. 
Acknowledgments
Funding of the publication fee and administration was provided by the Dry Eye Society, Tokyo, Japan. The Dry Eye Society had no role in the contents or writing of the manuscript. 
Disclosure: Y. Hori, Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (F, C, R), Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (F, C, R), HOYA (F), Alcon Japan Ltd. (F, R), Senju Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (F, R), Kowa Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (F, R) 
References
Moniaux N, Escande F, Porchert N, et al. Structural organization and classification of the human mucin genes. Front Biosci. 2001; 6: D1192–D1206.
Gipson IK, Hori Y, Argueso P. Character of ocular surface mucins and their alteration in dry eye disease. Ocul Surf. 2004; 2: 131–148.
Godl K, Johansson ME, Lidell ME, et al. The N terminus of the MUC2 mucin forms trimers that are held together within a Trypsin-resistant core fragment. J Biol Chem. 2002; 277: 47248–47256.
Guyonnet Duperat V, Audie JP, Debailleul V, et al . Characterization of the human mucin gene MUC5AC: a consensus cysteine-rich domain for 11p15 mucin genes? Biochem J. 1995; 305: 211–219.
Dufosse J, Porchet N, Audie JP, et al. Degenerate 87-base-pair tandem repeats create hydrophilic/hydrophobic alternating domains in human mucin peptides mapped to 11p15. Biochem J. 1993; 293: 329–337.
Portal C, Gouyer V, Magnien M, et al. In vivo imaging of the Muc5b gel-forming mucin. Sci Rep. 2017; 15: 44591.
Toribara NW, Roberton AM, Ho SB, et al. Human gastric mucin: identification of a unique species by expression cloning. J Biol Chem. 1993; 268: 5879–5885.
Chen Y, Zhao YH, Kalaslavadi TB, et al. Genome-wide search and identification of a novel gel-forming mucin MUC19/Muc19 in glandular tissues. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004; 30: 155–165.
Bobek LA, Tsai H, Biesbrock AR, et al. Molecular cloning, sequence, and specificity of expression of the gene encoding the low molecular weight human salivary mucin (MUC7). J Biol Chem. 1993; 268: 20563–20569.
Lapensee L, Paquette Y, Bleau G. Allelic polymorphism and chromosomal localization of the human oviductin gene (MUC9). Fertil Steril. 1997; 68: 702–708.
Gipson IK, Argueso P. Role of mucins in the function of the corneal and conjunctival epithelia. Int Rev Cytol. 2003; 231: 1–49.
Inatomi T, Spurr-Michaud S, Tisdale AS, et al. Expression of secretory mucin genes by human conjunctival epithelia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996; 37: 1684–1692.
Jumblatt MM, McKenzie RW, Steele PS, et al. MUC7 expression in the human lacrimal gland and conjunctiva. Cornea. 2003; 22: 41–45.
McKenzie RW, Jumblatt JE, Jumblatt MM. Quantification of MUC2 and MUC5AC transcripts in human conjunctiva. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000; 41: 703–708.
Yu DF, Chen Y, Han JM, et al. MUC19 expression in human ocular surface and lacrimal gland and its alteration in Sjogren syndrome patients. Exp Eye Res. 2008; 86: 403–411.
Inatomi T, Spurr-Michaud S, Tisdale AS, Gipson IK. Human corneal and conjunctival epithelia express MUC1 mucin. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995; 36: 1818–1827.
Pflugfelder SC, Liu Z, Monroy D, et al. Detection of sialomucin complex (MUC4) in human ocular surface epithelium and tear fluid. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000; 125: 323–336.
Argueso P, Spurr-Michaud S, Russo CL, et al. MUC16 mucin is expressed by the human ocular surface epithelia and carries H185 carbohydrate epitope. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003; 44: 2487–2495.
Woodward AM, Argueso P. Expression analysis of the transmembrane mucin MUC20 in human corneal and conjunctival epithelia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014; 55: 6132–6138.
Gipson IK. Goblet cells of the conjunctiva: A review of recent findings. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2016; 54: 49–63.
Kessing SV. Mucous gland system of the conjunctiva. A quantitative normal anatomical study. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1968; 95 (suppl): 1–133.
Knop E, Knop N, Zhivov A, et al. The lid wiper and muco-cutaneous junction anatomy of the human eyelid margins: an in vivo confocal and histological study. J Anat. 2011; 218: 449–461.
Knop N, Korb DR, Blackie CA, et al. The lid wiper contains goblet cells and goblet crypts for ocular surface lubrication during the blink. Cornea. 2012; 31: 668–679.
Kase S, Shinohara T, Kase M. Effect of topical rebamipide on goblet cells in the lid wiper of human conjunctiva. Exp Eye Res. 2017; 13: 3516–3522.
Diebold Y, Rios JD, Hodges RR, et al. Presence of nerves and their receptors in mouse and human conjunctival goblet cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001; 42: 2270–2282.
Rios JD, Zoukhri D, Rawe IM, et al. Immunolocalization of muscarinic and VIP receptor subtypes and their role in stimulating goblet cell secretion. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999; 40: 1102–1111.
Kanno H, Horikawa Y, Hodges RR, et al. Cholinergic agonists transactivate EGFR and stimulate MAPK to induce goblet cell secretion. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2003; 284: C988–C998.
Hodges RR, Bair JA, Carozza RB, et al. Signaling pathways used by EGF to stimulate conjunctival goblet cell secretion. Exp Eye Res. 2012; 103: 99–113.
Rios JD, Shatos MA, Urashima H, et al. Effect of OPC-12759 on EGF receptor activation, p44/p42 MAPK activity, and secretion in conjunctival goblet cells. Exp Eye Res. 2008; 86: 629–636.
Floyd AM, Zhou Xu, Evans C, et al. Mucin deficiency causes functional and structural changes of the ocular surface. PLoS One. 2012; 12: e50704.
Marko CK, Tisdale AS, Spurr-Michaud S, et al. The ocular surface phenotype of Muc5ac and Muc5b null mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014; 55: 291–300.
Marko CK, Menon BB, Chen G, et al. Spdef null mice lack conjunctival goblet cells and provide a model. Am J Pathol. 2013; 183: 35–48.
Argueso P, Balaram M, Spurr-Michaud S, et al. Decreased levels of the goblet cell mucin MUC5AC in tears of patients with Sjogren syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002; 43: 1004–1011.
Shimazaki-Den S, Dogru M, Higa K, et al. Symptoms, visual function, and mucin expression of eyes with tear film instability. Cornea. 2013; 32: 1211–1218.
Zhang X, De Paiva CS, Su Z, et al. Topical interferon-gamma neutralization prevents conjunctival goblet cell loss in experimental murine dry eye. Exp Eye Res. 2014; 118: 117–124.
Henriksson JT, Coursey TG, Corry DB, et al. IL-13 stimulates proliferation and expression of mucin and immunomodulatory genes in cultured conjunctival goblet cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015; 56: 4186–4197.
Pflugfelder SC, De Paiva CS, Moore QL, et al. Aqueous tear deficiency increases conjunctival interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) expression and goblet cell loss. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015; 56: 7545–7550.
Kunert KS, Keane-Myers AM, Spurr-Michaud S, et al. Alteration in goblet cell numbers and mucin gene expression in a mouse model of allergic conjunctivitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001; 42: 2483–2489.
Dogru M, Matsumoto Y, Okada N, et al. Alterations of the ocular surface epithelial MUC16 and goblet cell MUC5AC in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Allergy. 2008; 63: 1324–1334.
International Dry Eye Workshop. Management and therapy of dry eye disease: report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye Workshop (2007). Ocul Surf. 2007; 5: 75–92.
Jones L, Downie LE, Korb D, et al. TFOS DEWS II management and therapy report. Ocul Surf. 2017; 15: 575–628.
Uchino M, Yokoi N, Uchino Y, et al. Prevalence of dry eye disease and its risk factors in visual display terminal users: the Osaka Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013; 156: 759–766.
Uchino Y, Uchino M, Yokoi N, et al. Alteration of tear mucin 5AC in office workers using visual display terminals: the Osaka Study. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014; 132: 985–992.
Uchino Y, Uchino M, Yokoi N, et al. Impact of cigarette smoking on tear function and correlation between conjunctival goblet cells and tear MUC5AC concentration in office workers. Sci Rep. 2016; 6: 27699.
Cowlen MS, Zhang VZ, Warnock L, Moyer CF, Peterson WM, Yerxa BR. Localization of ocular P2Y2 receptor gene expression by in situ hybridization. Exp Eye Res. 2003; 77: 77–84.
Jumblatt JE, Jumblatt MM. Regulation of ocular mucin secretion by P2Y2 nucleotide receptors in rabbit and human conjunctiva. Exp Eye Res. 1998; 67: 341–346.
Nakamura M, Imanaka T, Sakamoto A. Diquafosol ophthalmic solution for dry eye treatment. Adv Ther. 2012; 29: 579–589.
Takaoka-Shichijo Y, Murakami T, Nakamura M. Stimulatory effect of diquafosol tetrasodium on tear fluid secretion in normal rabbits [in Japanese]. Atarashii Ganka. 2011; 28: 1029–1033.
Fujihara T, Murakami T, Fujita H, et al. Improvement of corneal barrier function by the P2Y2 agonist INS365 in a rat dry eye model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001; 42: 96–100.
Hori Y, Kageyama T, Sakamoto A, et al. Comparison of short-term effects of diquafosol and rebamipide on mucin 5AC level on the rabbit ocular surface. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2017; 33: 493–497.
Takaoka-Shichijo Y, Nakamura M. Stimulatory effect of diquafosol tetrasodium on the expression of membrane-binding mucin genes in cultured human corneal epithelial cells [in Japanese]. J Eye. 2011; 28: 425–429.
Kamiya K, Nakanishi M, Ishii R, et al. Clinical evaluation of the additive effect of diquafosol tetrasodium on sodium hyaluronate monotherapy in patients with dry eye syndrome: a prospective randomized, multicenter study. Eye (Lond). 2012; 26: 1363–1368.
Koh S, Ikeda C, Takai Y, et al. Long-term results of treatment with diquafosol ophthalmic solution for aqueous-deficient dry eye. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2013; 57: 440–446.
Shimazaki-Den S, Iseda H, Dogru M, et al. Effects of diquafosol sodium eye drops on tear film stability in short BUT type of dry eye. Cornea. 2013; 32: 1120–1125.
Kaido M, Uchino M, Kojima T, et al. Effects of diquafosol tetrasodium administration on visual function in short break-up time dry eye. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2013; 29: 595–603.
Kobashi H, Kamiya K, Igarashi A, et al. Intraocular scattering after instillation of diquafosol ophthalmic solution. Optom Vis Sci. 2015; 92: e303–e309.
Toda I, Ide T, Fukumoto T, et al. Combination therapy with diquafosol tetrasodium and sodium hyaluronate in patients with dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014; 157: 616–622.
Mori Y, Nejima R, Masuda A, et al. Effect of diquafosol tetrasodium eye drop for persistent dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis. Cornea. 2014; 33: 659–662.
Arita R, Suehiro J, Haraguchi T, et al. Topical diquafosol for patients with obstructive Meibomian gland dysfunction. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013; 97: 725–729.
Arakawa T, Higuchi K, Fujiwara Y, et al. 15th Anniversary of rebamipide: looking ahead to the new mechanisms and new applications. Digest Dis Sci. 2005; 50 (suppl 1): S3–S11.
Urashima H, Takeji Y, Okamoto T, Fujisawa S, Shinohara H. Rebamipide increases mucin-like substance contents and periodic acid Schiff reagent-positive cells density in normal rabbits. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2012; 28: 264–270.
Urashima H, Okamoto T, Takeji Y, et al. Rebamipide increases the amount of mucin-like substances on the conjunctival and cornea in the N-acetylcysteine treated in vivo model. Cornea. 2004; 23: 613–619.
Ohguchi T, Kojima T, Ibrahim OM, et al. The effects of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic solution on the tear functions and ocular surface of the superoxide dismutase-1 (sod1) knockout mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013; 54: 7793–7802.
Kase S, Shinohara T, Kase M. Effect of topical rebamipide on human conjunctival goblet cells. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014; 132: 1021–1022.
Itoh S, Itoh K, Shinohara H. Regulation of human corneal epithelial mucins by rebamipide. Curr Eye Res. 2014; 39: 133–141.
Uchino Y, Woodward AM, Argueso P. Differential effect of rebamipide on transmembrane mucin biosynthesis in stratified ocular surface epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res. 2016; 153: 1–7.
Tanaka H, Fukuda K, Ishida W. Rebamipide increases barrier function and attenuates TNF alpha-induced barrier function and cytokine expression in human corneal cells. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013; 97: 912–916.
Kimura K, Morita Y, Orita T, et al. Protection of human corneal epithelial cells from TNF-alpha-induced disruption of barrier function by rebamipide. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013; 54: 2572–2760.
Kato K, Takashima Y, Matsunaga K, et al. Effect of topical rebamipide on conjunctival goblet cell recovery after vitrectomy. Sci Rep. 2016; 6: 19516.
Kato K, Miyake K, Kondo N, et al. Conjunctival goblet cell density following cataract surgery with diclofenac versus diclofenac and rebamipide: a randomized trial. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017; 181: 26–36.
Hori Y, Maeno T. Effects of diquafosol ophthalmic solutions and rebamipide ophthalmic suspension on tear fluid volume in normal rabbit [in Japanese]. Atarashii Ganka. 2013; 30: 1007–1010.
Figure 1
 
Impression cytology of human conjunctiva. After topical anesthesia is applied, cellulose acetate filters (4 × 6 mm) are pressed onto the bulbar conjunctiva (A). PAS staining of the impression cytology sample (bulbar conjunctiva) (B). Positive cells represent goblet cells.
Figure 1
 
Impression cytology of human conjunctiva. After topical anesthesia is applied, cellulose acetate filters (4 × 6 mm) are pressed onto the bulbar conjunctiva (A). PAS staining of the impression cytology sample (bulbar conjunctiva) (B). Positive cells represent goblet cells.
Figure 2
 
MUC5AC expression on the human conjunctiva. A cross section of human conjunctiva is labeled with fluorescein-labeled MUC5AC (antibody 781 provided by Ilene Gipson) to demonstrate mucin secreted from goblet cells.
Figure 2
 
MUC5AC expression on the human conjunctiva. A cross section of human conjunctiva is labeled with fluorescein-labeled MUC5AC (antibody 781 provided by Ilene Gipson) to demonstrate mucin secreted from goblet cells.
×
×

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

Sign in or purchase a subscription to access this content. ×

You must be signed into an individual account to use this feature.

×