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Frances Rucker, Stephanie Britton, Christopher Taylor; Color and Temporal Frequency Sensitive Eye Growth in Chick. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2018;59(15):6003-6013. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-25322.
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Longitudinal chromatic aberration can provide luminance and chromatic signals for emmetropization. A previous experiment examined the role of temporal sensitivity to luminance flicker in the emmetropization response. In the current experiment, we investigate the role of temporal sensitivity to color flicker.
Five-day-old chicks were exposed to sinusoidal color modulation of blue/yellow (N = 73) or red/green LEDs (N = 84) at 80% contrast for 3 days. The modulation frequencies used were as follows: 0, 0.2, 1, 2, 5, and 10 Hz. There were 5 to 16 chicks per condition. Mean illumination was 680 lux. Changes in ocular components were measured using Lenstar, and refraction was measured with a Hartinger refractometer.
Eyes grew less when exposed to high temporal frequencies and more at low temporal frequencies. With blue/yellow modulation, the temporal variation was small; eyes grew 268 ± 15 μm at 0 Hz and 224 ± 12 μm at 10 Hz, representing a 16.4% growth reduction. With red/green modulation, eyes grew 336 ± 31 μm at 0 Hz and 218 ± 20 μm at 10 Hz, representing a 35% growth reduction. Choroidal and anterior chamber changes compensated for eye growth, reducing refractive effects; blue/yellow refraction changes ranged from −0.63 to 1.04 diopters.
At high temporal frequencies, color is not a factor, but at low temporal frequencies, red/green modulation produced maximal growth. The pattern of changes observed in each ocular component with changes in the temporal frequency and/or the color of the stimulus was consistent with the idea that the natural sunlight spectrum may be optimal for emmetropization.
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