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Rupesh Agrawal, Praveen Kumar Balne, Xin Wei, Veonice Au Bijin, Bernett Lee, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Raja Narayanan, Mukesh Agrawal, John Connolly; Cytokine Profiling in Patients With Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(1):376-382. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-24387.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytokine profiles in plasma and aqueous humor of patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) due to exudative AMD and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV).
In this cross-sectional study, 16 patients clinically diagnosed with AMD, 18 patients with PCV, and 50 age- and sex-matched cataract patients without AMD/PCV (controls) were enrolled. Study subjects were treatment naïve, and 200 μL undiluted aqueous humor and 5 mL peripheral venous blood were collected from the study subjects. Clinical samples were analyzed for 41 different cytokines by Luminex bead-based multiplex assay. Cytokines concentrations with detection rates of 50% or more were included for the analysis, and the differences in plasma and aqueous humor cytokines levels between each group were analyzed.
The age of the patients with AMD and PCV was 70.62 ± 10.15 (mean ± SD) and 71.48 ± 9.08 years, respectively, and that in the control group was 62.8 ± 10.67 years. Aqueous humor cytokines growth-regulated oncogene (GRO), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α were significantly higher in AMD patients than controls (all P < 0.04), and GRO, MDC, MIP-1α, IL-8, IFN-γ–inducible protein 10, and monocyte chemotactic protein levels were significantly higher in PCV patients than controls (all P < 0.03). Soluble CD40 ligand and platelet-derived growth factor-AA levels were higher in plasma of healthy controls compared with AMD subjects. No significant differences in cytokine levels were observed between AMD and PCV patients for both plasma and aqueous humor.
In AMD and PCV patients, our data suggest that the pathologic changes are primarily driven by dysregulation of local immune factors in the eye, whereas the plasma cytokine levels are not elevated.
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