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Filippo Arcadu, Fethallah Benmansour, Andreas Maunz, John Michon, Zdenka Haskova, Dana McClintock, Anthony P. Adamis, Jeffrey R. Willis, Marco Prunotto; Deep Learning Predicts OCT Measures of Diabetic Macular Thickening From Color Fundus Photographs. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(4):852-857. doi: 10.1167/iovs.18-25634.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To develop deep learning (DL) models for the automatic detection of optical coherence tomography (OCT) measures of diabetic macular thickening (MT) from color fundus photographs (CFPs).
Retrospective analysis on 17,997 CFPs and their associated OCT measurements from the phase 3 RIDE/RISE diabetic macular edema (DME) studies. DL with transfer-learning cascade was applied on CFPs to predict time-domain OCT (TD-OCT)–equivalent measures of MT, including central subfield thickness (CST) and central foveal thickness (CFT). MT was defined by using two OCT cutoff points: 250 μm and 400 μm. A DL regression model was developed to directly quantify the actual CFT and CST from CFPs.
The best DL model was able to predict CST ≥ 250 μm and CFT ≥ 250 μm with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89–1.00) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.76–0.99), respectively. To predict CST ≥ 400 μm and CFT ≥ 400 μm, the best DL model had an AUC of 0.94 (95% CI, 0.82–1.00) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.88–1.00), respectively. The best deep convolutional neural network regression model to quantify CST and CFT had an R2 of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.49–0.91) and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.20–0.87), respectively. The performance of the DL models declined when the CFPs were of poor quality or contained laser scars.
DL is capable of predicting key quantitative TD-OCT measurements related to MT from CFPs. The DL models presented here could enhance the efficiency of DME diagnosis in tele-ophthalmology programs, promoting better visual outcomes. Future research is needed to validate DL algorithms for MT in the real-world.
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