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Tao Li, Yan Jia, Shanshan Wang, Anken Wang, Lu Gao, Chenhao Yang, Haidong Zou; Retinal Microvascular Abnormalities in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Without Visual Impairment or Diabetic Retinopathy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(4):990-998. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-25499.
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To study the characteristics and associated factors of retinal microvascular abnormalities in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without visual impairment and diabetic retinopathy (DR).
Case–control hospital-based study including children with or without DM. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA; CIRRUS HD-OCT model 5000) was used to scan 6 × 6 mm square area of posterior retina and optic disc. The indexes analyzed mainly included vascular length density (VD), perfusion density (PD), and foveal avascular zone area, perimeter, and morphology. Independent risk factors were analyzed by multifactor linear regression.
A total of 47 children with T1DM and 44 healthy subjects were enrolled. Statistical analysis showed that VD within 1 to 3 mm (inner ring) of the macula in the case group was smaller than that in the control group (18.561 ± 1.151/mm: 19.161 ± 0.464/mm; P< 0.001), and mother's excessive weight gain during pregnancy was an independent factor (P = 0.004); VD within 3 to 6 mm (outer ring) of the macula in the case group was smaller than that in the control group (19.044 ± 0.847/mm; 19.404 ± 0.496/mm, P = 0.029), while serum creatinine level was revealed to be an independent factor (P = 0.009); PD within 3 to 6 mm of the macula in the case group was higher than that in the control group (0.456 ± 0.015: 0.442 ± 0.030) (P = 0.003), with no independent factor observed in regression analysis.
Retinal microvasculopathy had already occurred in the parafoveal area of diabetic children without visual impairment and DR; early screening and close follow-up were recommended for children with high-risk factors.
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