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Wuhe Chen, Jiangtao Lou, Frank Thorn, Yingjie Wang, Jieli Mao, Qingya Wang, Xinping Yu; Retinal Microvasculature in Amblyopic Children and the Quantitative Relationship Between Retinal Perfusion and Thickness. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(4):1185-1191. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-26416.
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To quantify retinal vascular density in amblyopic children and to investigate the relationship between superficial and deep retinal vessel density and retinal thickness.
In this prospective cross-sectional study, 85 amblyopic children (5–12 years) and 66 age-matched control subjects participated at a pediatric ophthalmology clinic. Macular vessel densities of the superficial and deep capillary plexuses (SCP, DCP, respectively) and retinal thickness were measured by clinical optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA). Vessel density and retinal thickness were compared between amblyopic groups and the control group, and correlations among these two variables were analyzed.
Of the 85 amblyopic children, 52 children had anisometropic amblyopia, 16 had strabismic amblyopia, and 17 had bilateral amblyopia. The foveal and parafoveal macular vessel density in the SCP was lower in amblyopic than control children (P ≤ 0.008). Compared to strabismic and bilateral amblyopias, anisometropic amblyopia SCP differed the most from controls (P ≤ 0.005). Macular vessel density in the DCP of amblyopic children was similar to controls. Multiple linear regression analyses showed SCP vessel density was positively correlated with inner retinal thickness in the fovea (P < 0.001) and in the temporal, nasal, and inferior quadrants of the parafovea (P ≤ 0.008).
Macular vessel density is decreased in anisometropic amblyopia, and to a lesser extent, the other amblyopias. Retinal small vessel density was correlated with the thickness of the macular inner retina. The causality of retinal change (i.e., whether it is primary or secondary to the onset of amblyopia) has not yet been determined.
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