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Shawn Philip, Ahmad Najafi, Apichat Tantraworasin, Toco Y. P. Chui, Richard B. Rosen, Robert Ritch; Macula Vessel Density and Foveal Avascular Zone Parameters in Exfoliation Glaucoma Compared to Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(4):1244-1253. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-25986.
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The purpose of this study was to explore macula vessel density and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) parameters in exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) compared to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).
This was a cross-sectional observational study. Twenty-six XFG and 28 POAG patients with comparable visual field defects on Humphrey 24-2 and 10-2 perimetries were recruited. OCTA scans (3 × 3 mm) centered on the fovea were obtained. Built-in software was used to measure superficial capillary plexus (SCP) vessel density at different quadrants of the macula. Custom software was then used to create a full-thickness image. The FAZ was manually delineated, and large vessels were removed. Vessel density in eight concentric rings with increments of 200-μm diameters from the delineated FAZ was measured. FAZ parameters were calculated using the custom software.
SCP density was significantly lower in the superior (mean difference [MD] = −4.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −7.02, −1.61, P = 0.003) and nasal (MD = −3.00, 95% CI = 05.22, −0.77, P = 0.010) quadrants in XFG versus POAG. SCP vessel density using the concentric ring approach revealed significantly decreased values at all eight rings in XFG versus POAG. In the full-thickness analysis, density was significantly less in the XFG group in all rings except the initial 200 μm. No significant differences existed in FAZ parameters between the groups.
Despite the presence of comparable central visual field defects, the macula vessel density was predominately lower in XFG compared with POAG in our sample of patients. Further studies are warranted to investigate the consistency of our results.
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