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Lu Yao, Lin-song Qi, Xue-feng Wang, Qing Tian, Qing-hong Yang, Teng-yun Wu, Yao-ming Chang, Zhi-kang Zou; Refractive Change and Incidence of Myopia Among A Group of Highly Selected Senior High School Students in China: A Prospective Study in An Aviation Cadet Prerecruitment Class. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(5):1344-1352. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.17-23506.
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To assess the incidence rate of myopia, refractive change, and the effects of influencing factors on a group of highly selected senior high school students in an Aviation Cadet prerecruitment class in China.
A total of 800 nonmyopic, male, Grade 9 students aged 14- to 16-years old with cycloplegic refraction of −0.25 or greater diopters (D) to 1.75 D or less in both eyes were enrolled in May 2016. During their senior high school studies, students had one 20-minute physical training period a day, and they were encouraged to participate in outdoor activities during class recess without any time limits. The first follow-up was 8 months after enrollment when they were in Grade 10, and the second follow-up was 1 year after the first follow-up when they were in Grade 11. Comprehensive ocular examinations and a detailed questionnaire, which included questions about outdoor activity time, parental myopia, and near work, were completed at each follow-up.
The average spherical equivalent refraction (SER) of the right eyes was 0.39 ± 0.44 D at baseline, 0.16 ± 0.41 D at the first follow-up, and −0.10 ± 0.38 D at the second follow-up. The cumulative refractive change was −0.50 D (95% confidence interval [CI], −0.53 to −0.47). The cumulative incidence rate of myopia was 15.5% (124/800). Incident myopia was significantly associated with outdoor activity for more than 1 versus less than 0.5 hr/d (odds ratio [OR] = 0.272, 95% CI, 0.132–0.560), baseline refraction (OR = 0.079, 95% CI, 0.041–0.153), maternal myopia (OR = 2.251, 95% CI, 1.160–4.368), longer class time (OR =3.215, 95% CI, 1.088–9.499), frequent, continuous, and long time reading/writing (OR = 1.620, 95% CI, 1.022–2.570), and shorter reading/writing distance (OR = 1.828, 95% CI, 1.065–3.140). In multiple linear regression model, having outdoor activity for more than 1 hr/d was protective from cumulative SER decrease. A higher baseline refraction together with longer reading/writing time, frequent, continuous, and longtime reading/writing, and shorter reading/writing distance were risk factors for SER decrease.
In this cohort of highly selected, nonmyopic students, longer outdoor activity time was a protective factor for both incident myopia and refractive change of myopic shift. The risk factors for incident myopia included lower hyperopic baseline refraction, more near work, and maternal myopia. The risk factors for refractive change of myopic shift included more hyperopic baseline refraction and more near work.
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