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Eleonora Corbelli, Mariacristina Parravano, Riccardo Sacconi, David Sarraf, Seung-Young Yu, Kiyoung Kim, Vittorio Capuano, Alexandra Miere, Eric Souied, Monica Varano, Antonluca Boninfante, Bora Chae, Adriano Carnevali, Lea Querques, Francesco Bandello, Giuseppe Querques; Prevalence and Phenotypes of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Eyes With High Myopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(5):1394-1402. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-25534.
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To analyze the frequency and phenotypic variation of AMD in subjects with high myopia (HM), and to describe the clinical course and response to treatment of neovascularization (NV).
Patients with HM were identified at five retina tertiary referral centers. Inclusion criteria were myopic patients aged 55 years or more with axial lengths equal or greater than 25.5 mm.
A total of 874 eyes from 442 HM subjects older than 55 years were identified and 104 eyes of 54 patients (72 ± 11 years) were included in the study and followed up for 23.5 ± 19.5 months. The estimated AMD frequency in HM subjects over 55 years was 11.9% (95% confidence interval; 9.8%–14.0%). A total of 34 of 104 eyes were diagnosed with drusen, 22 with reticular pseudodrusen (RPD), 28 with both drusen and RPD, and 20 with geographic atrophy. Neovascularization was detected in 52 eyes (50%), and type 1 was the most frequent form (39 eyes, 75%). Overall, NV was treated with 4.6 ± 2.6 anti-VEGF injections. Eyes with treatment-naïve NV at baseline (n = 34) required 3.8 ± 1.5 anti-VEGF injections during the first year of treatment. This exceeded the injection number in the purely myopic population (1.8 to 3.6 injections for the first year).
This study provides evidence to suggest that older patients with HM are at a significant risk of the dry and neovascular forms of AMD. NV in eyes with HM and AMD required more injections in the first year compared to NV in HM eyes without AMD.
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