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Bruce A. Berkowitz, Robert H. Podolsky, Karen M. Lins-Childers, Yichao Li, Haohua Qian; Outer Retinal Oxidative Stress Measured In Vivo Using QUEnch-assiSTed (QUEST) OCT. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(5):1566-1570. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-26164.
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To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress in the outer retina (OR = distance from external limiting membrane to the retinal pigment epithelium–choroid boundary) can be detected by using antioxidants (AOs) to correct an impaired light-evoked response as measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT).
C57BL/6J mice were maintained in the dark for ∼20 hours and studied by OCT before and after 1 hour of light exposure. OR thickness in dark or light was measured, and the light-dark difference (i.e., the photoresponse) was calculated. Subgroups of mice were given either saline or d-cis-diltiazem (an inducer of transient and nondamaging OR oxidative stress) ± methylene blue (24 hours before examination) and α-lipoic acid (1 hour before examination); one group was kept only in the dark and given only AOs.
In uninjected or saline-injected control mice, the OR showed a similar and reproducible light-induced expansion; dark-adapted mice given AOs did not increase dark-adapted OR thickness. The d-cis-diltiazem–treated mice had no photoresponse (P > 0.05). The d-cis-diltiazem–treated mice given AOs corrected (P < 0.05) the suppressed OR photoresponse, indicating the presence of oxidative stress.
QUEnch-assiSTed (QUEST) OCT reproduced results from previous gold standard assays, showing that oxidative stress impairs the OR photoresponse and that d-cis-diltiazem produces OR oxidative stress. We envision future applications of QUEST OCT in a range of oxidative stress–based retinopathies.
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