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Elizabeth Wen Ling Lim, Miao Li Chee, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Shivani Majithia, Yijin Tao, Tien Yin Wong, Ching-Yu Cheng, Louis Tong; Relationship Between Sleep and Symptoms of Tear Dysfunction in Singapore Malays and Indians. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(6):1889-1897. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.19-26810.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between sleep (duration and quality) and symptoms of dry eye in Singapore Malay and Indian adults.
This was a prospective cross-sectional study. A total of 3303 subjects aged 40 years and above from two large population-based cohorts, the Singapore Malay Eye Study-2 (n = 1191, 2011–2013) and the Singapore Indian Eye Study-2 (n = 2112, 2013–2015), were included. The presence of symptoms of dry eye was defined as having at least one of six symptoms often or all the time. Sleep questionnaires included the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Berlin Questionnaire, STOP-bang questionnaire, and Insomnia Severity Index. Poor sleep quality was defined as meeting the respective questionnaire thresholds. General health questionnaires (including sleep duration) and standardized ocular and systemic tests were also used.
Of 3303 participants, 6.4% had excessive sleepiness, 20.5% had high risk for sleep apnea, 2.7% had clinical insomnia, and 7.8% had <5 hours of sleep. These sleep factors were associated with symptoms of dry eye. After adjusting for relevant demographic, medical, and social factors, the following were associated with higher odds of symptoms of dry eye: excessive sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale: odds ratio [OR] = 1.77 [1.15–2.71]), high risk of sleep apnea (Berlin Questionnaire: OR = 1.55 [1.17–2.07], STOP-Bang Questionnaire: OR = 2.66 [1.53–4.61]), clinical insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index: OR = 3.68 [2.17–6.26]) and <5 hours of sleep (OR = 1.73 [1.17–2.57], reference sleep duration 5–9 hours). Sleep apnea, insomnia, and sleep duration were each shown to be independently associated with symptoms of dry eye.
Short sleep duration and poor quality are both significantly and independently associated with symptoms of dry eye.
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