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Hannah J. Burfield, Andrew Carkeet, Lisa A. Ostrin; Ocular and Systemic Diurnal Rhythms in Emmetropic and Myopic Adults. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(6):2237-2247. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.19-26711.
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To investigate ocular and systemic diurnal rhythms in emmetropic and myopic adults and examine relationships with light exposure.
Adult subjects (n = 42, 22–41 years) underwent measurements every 4 hours for 24 hours, including blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, intraocular pressure (IOP), ocular biometry, and optical coherence tomography imaging. Mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP) was calculated. Saliva was collected for melatonin and cortisol analysis. Acrophase and amplitude for each parameter were compared between refractive error groups. Subjects wore a light, sleep, and activity monitor for 1 week before measurements.
All parameters exhibited significant diurnal rhythm (ANOVA, P < 0.05 for all). Choroidal thickness peaked at 2.42 hours, with a diurnal variation of 25.8 ± 13.44 μm. Axial length peaked at 12.96 hours, with a variation of 35.71 ± 6.6 μm. Melatonin peaked at 3.19 hours during the dark period, while cortisol peaked after light onset at 8.86 hours. IOP peaked at 11.24 hours, with a variation of 4.92 ± 1.57 mm Hg, in antiphase with MOPP, which peaked at 22.02 hours. Amplitudes of daily variations were not correlated with light exposure, and rhythms were not significantly different between emmetropes and myopes, except for body temperature and MOPP.
Diurnal variations in ocular and systemic parameters were observed in young adults; however, these variations were not associated with habitual light exposure. Emmetropic and myopic refractive error groups showed small but significant differences in body temperature and MOPP, while other ocular and systemic patterns were similar.
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