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Min Wang, Andrea C. Aleman, Frank Schaeffel; Probing the Potency of Artificial Dynamic ON or OFF Stimuli to Inhibit Myopia Development. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(7):2599-2611. doi: 10.1167/iovs.18-26471.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To determine whether equiluminant artificial dynamic ON or OFF stimuli on a computer screen can induce bidirectional changes in choroidal thickness (ChTh) in both humans and chickens, and whether such changes are associated with bidirectional changes in retinal dopamine release in chickens.
Experiment 1: Before and after ON or OFF stimulation for 1 hour, ChTh was measured with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Experiment 2: chicks (n = 14) were raised under ON or OFF stimulation for 3 hours. ChTh was determined by OCT. Experiment 3: chicks were raised for 7 days either under room light (500 lux, n = 11), dynamic ON stimulus (700 lux, n = 15), or dynamic OFF stimulus (700 lux, n = 7). In addition, negative lenses were attached to their right eyes. After experiments 2 and 3, retinal and vitreal dopamine (DA), and its metabolites, were measured by HPLC–electrochemical detection.
Experiment 1: Dynamic ON stimuli caused thicker choroids (+5.3 ± 2.0 μm), whereas OFF stimuli caused choroidal thinning (−4.7 ± 0.5 μm) (right eye data only, P < 0.001). Experiment 2: After 3 hours, chickens developed thicker choroids with ON stimuli (+37.4 ± 12.4 μm) and thinner choroids with OFF stimuli (−11.3 ± 3.6 μm, difference P < 0.01). Vitreal DA, 3-methoxytyramine, and homovanillic acid levels were elevated after ON stimulation, compared with the OFF (P < 0.05). Experiment 3: After 7 days, chickens with lenses developed more myopia both with ON and OFF stimulation, compared with room light. ON stimulation increased vitreal DA compared with OFF.
Artificial dynamic ON or OFF stimuli had similar effects on ChTh in humans and chickens, but more work will be necessary to determine whether such stimuli can be used as novel interventions of myopia.
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