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Emi Ueda, Miho Yasuda, Kohta Fujiwara, Sawako Hashimoto, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui, Jun Hata, Tatsuro Ishibashi, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Koh-Hei Sonoda; Trends in the Prevalence of Myopia and Myopic Maculopathy in a Japanese Population: The Hisayama Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(8):2781-2786. doi: 10.1167/iovs.19-26580.
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To examine trends in the prevalence of myopia and myopic maculopathy in a general Japanese population.
Residents of a Japanese community aged 40 years and older participated in surveys conducted in 2005, 2012, and 2017. Each participant underwent comprehensive eye examinations that included measurements of refractive error, axial lengths, and color fundus photography. Myopic maculopathy was defined according to the criteria of the Meta-analysis of Pathologic Myopia Study Group classification system. Trends in the prevalence of myopia and myopic maculopathy were tested by using a logistic regression analysis fitted by generalized estimating equations to account for individuals submitting to repeated examination.
The age-adjusted frequencies of myopia increased significantly from 2005 to 2017 (myopia, 37.7%–45.8%; high myopia 5.8%–9.5%; all P for trend <0.001). The age-adjusted frequency of an axial length level of 26.5 mm or more increased significantly from 2005 to 2017 (3.6%–6.0%; P for trend <0.001). The age-adjusted prevalence of myopic maculopathy also increased significantly with time (1.6% in 2005, 3.0% in 2012 and 3.6% in 2017; P for trend <0.001). Upward trends were observed in the prevalence of diffuse chorioretinal atrophy and patchy chorioretinal atrophy (all P for trend <0.05).
Our findings suggest that the prevalence of myopia and myopic maculopathy, especially diffuse chorioretinal atrophy and patchy chorioretinal atrophy, increased significantly over the past 12 years in a general Japanese population.
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