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Jolique A. van Ipenburg, Nadine E. de Waard, Nicole C. Naus, Martine J. Jager, Dion Paridaens, Robert M. Verdijk; Chemokine Receptor Expression Pattern Correlates to Progression of Conjunctival Melanocytic Lesions. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(8):2950-2957. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.19-27162.
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Chemokines play a role in the progression and metastatic spread of both cutaneous and uveal melanomas. The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic value of expression of chemokine receptors CCR7, CXCR4, and CCR10 in conjunctival melanocytic lesions.
In total, 44 conjunctival nevi, 21 cases of primary acquired melanosis (PAM) with atypia and 35 conjunctival melanomas, were included. After immunohistochemical staining for CCR7, CXCR4, and CCR10 the immunoreactive score (IRS) was determined. The findings were correlated for association with melanoma and development of metastasis. For mechanistic evaluation, we used a mouse melanoma metastasis model using two human conjunctival melanoma cell lines, CM2005.1 and CRMM1.
All tested chemokines showed a significantly higher expression in conjunctival melanoma than conjunctival nevi. There was a statistically significant difference between the IRS in nevi and PAM with atypia for nuclear IRS in CCR10 (P = 0.03) and both nuclear and cytoplasmic IRS in CXCR4 (P < 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively); this was also true evaluating the groups PAM with atypia and melanoma all together (P < 0.01). Furthermore, a trend for lower IRS was seen in cases of melanoma without metastasis, with a suggestive pattern of a higher IRS in cases that did develop metastases, supported for CXCR4 using the mouse melanoma metastasis model.
Expression of specific chemokines changes during the progression and metastatic spread of conjunctival melanocytic lesions. Differential chemokine profiles may hold prognostic value for patients with conjunctival melanomas and might be considered as a therapeutic target.
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