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Linda D. Hazlett, Sandamali A. Ekanayaka, Sharon A. McClellan, Rebecca Francis; Glycyrrhizin Use for Multi-Drug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(8):2978-2989. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.19-27200.
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Our purpose was to test glycyrrhizin (GLY) effects and ciprofloxacin interactions on multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo in a mouse model of keratitis.
A Hardy-disk tested antibiotic sensitivity of isolates MDR9 (nonocular) and B1045 (ocular). GLY MIC (both isolates) and ciprofloxacin was determined spectrophotometrically. A live/dead assay using confocal microscopy and plate count, tested GLY effects on bacterial permeabilization/viability. Proteomics profiled bacterial efflux pumps (MDR9 vs. PAO1); RT-PCR comparatively tested GLY effects on their mRNA expression levels. The activity of efflux pumps was tested using ethidium bromide (EB); and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) visualized the effects of GLY treatment of bacteria. A combination of GLY and ciprofloxacin was tested in C57BL/6 mice (begun 18 hours after infection) and disease scored, photographed and MPO and plate counts done.
MDR9 was resistant to 6/12 and B1045 to 7/12 antibiotics (both to ciprofloxacin). MIC GLY for MDR9 was 40 mg/mL and 15 mg/mL for B1045. Ciprofloxacin MIC (32 μg/mL) was reduced 2-fold to 16 μg/mL when ciprofloxacin and GLY were combined. GLY altered bacterial membrane permeability and reduced viability. Proteomics revealed increased efflux pumps in MDR9 versus PAO1; GLY reduced their mRNA expression levels and EB suggested decreased activity. In C57BL/6 mice, treatment with GLY and ciprofloxacin versus ciprofloxacin, significantly reduced clinical scores, plate count, and MPO.
GLY decreases MDR by: altering bacterial parameters, including viability and efflux pump activity. In vivo, it increases the effectiveness of ciprofloxacin, reducing ocular disease, plate count, and MPO activity.
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