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Yin Hu, Xiaohu Ding, Junwen Zeng, Dongmei Cui, Cong Li, Mingguang He, Xiao Yang; Longitudinal Changes in Spherical Equivalent of Moderate to High Hyperopia: 2- to 8-Year Follow-Up of Children at an Initial Age of 5.5 to 8.4 Years. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(8):3127-3134. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-26435.
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Moderate to high hyperopia is associated with visual deficits. Currently, to our knowledge no study has reported its longitudinal refraction change in a large sample of schoolchildren. We investigated the longitudinal changes in spherical equivalent (SE) refractive error among schoolchildren with moderate to high hyperopia.
Medical records of patients seeking refractions at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center between 2009 and 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Eligible criteria included hyperopia ≥+2.00 diopters (D) at an initial age of 6 to 8 years, at least three visits, and at least a 2-year follow-up. Individual pattern of refraction development was evaluated based on the mean rate of change in SE. Mixed-effect regression analysis was used to explore factors associated with the rate of change.
A total of 1769 cases were identified. Median initial age was 6.4 (interquartile range [IQR], 5.9 to 7.1) years and median age at the final visit was 10.1 (IQR, 8.9 to 11.5) years. Median initial SE was +3.13 (IQR, +2.38 to +5.25) D. On average, participants experienced a myopic shift of −0.35 ± 0.27 D/year. A considerable number of eyes (721, 40.8%) demonstrated a longitudinal change of less than ±0.25 D/year and approximately 1 of 3 (611/1769) eyes demonstrated a change of >−0.50 and ≤−0.25 D/year. Children with greater initial hyperopia (β = −0.02, P < 0.001) experienced significantly faster reduction in hyperopic refraction. Age and sex had statistically significant but clinically insignificant impacts on the rate of hyperopia reduction.
Variation exists in the refraction development of schoolchildren with moderate to high hyperopia. A considerable percentage of eyes demonstrates longitudinally stable refraction.
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