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Miin Roh, Hyun Joon Shin, Ines Lains, Joana Providência, Eduarda Caseiro-Alves, Patricia Barreto, Carla Lopes, Demetrios Vavvas, John B Miller, Ivana K Kim, Liming Liang, Rufino Silva, Joan W Miller, Deeba Husain; Higher Intake of Polyunsatruated Fatty Acid and Monounsaturated Fatty Acid is inversely assoicated with presence of Age-related Macular Degeneration. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(9):57. doi: https://doi.org/.
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To evaluate the association between the type of dietary fat intake and age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
A cross-sectional observational multicenter study was performed at Mass Eye and Ear and at the University of Coimbra. AMD was diagnosed based on the AREDS classification system. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary intake. Percent energy intake of trans fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) were calculated. To investigate the association between the intake of dietary fat and presence of AMD vs. control, odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for quintile of amount and type of dietary fatty acid were calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate OR while adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking status, physical activity, DASH (dietary approach to stop hypertension) score to adjust for overall diet pattern and hypertension.
We included 483 participants (181 from the US and 302 from Portugal); 386 patients with AMD and 97 controls. After adjusting for confounding factors, higher % energy intake of trans fat was associated with 2.7-fold higher odds of presence of AMD (p=0.008), while higher intake of PUFA (OR= 0.24, p=0.005) and MUFA (OR= 0.24, p<0.0001) presented an inverse association. Subgroup analysis showed that an increased quintile of trans fat(% energy) was associated with increased odds of having intermediate AMD vs. control (OR=2.58, p=0.014); and an increased quintile of PUFA (% energy) and MUFA (% energy) were inversely associated with intermediate and advanced AMD vs. control (OR= 0.19, p=0.001, and OR=0.17, p<0.0001 respectively). Additionally, there was a statistically significant effect modification by country in the association between MUFA and presence of AMD. In Portugal, the inverse association between MUFA and AMD was significant (highest quintile vs. lowest quintile: OR=0.04, p for trend <0.0001), while this was not observed for the US population (p for trend 0.67).
A higher dietary intake of trans fat is associated with the presence of AMD, while a higher intake of both PUFA and MUFA are inversely associated with the presence of AMD in both intermediate and late stages, independent of the overall dietary pattern.
This abstract was presented at the 2019 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Vancouver, Canada, April 28 - May 2, 2019.
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