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Eileen E Birch, Yolanda S Castañeda, Christina S Cheng-Patel, Sarah Morale email@example.com, Krista R Kelly, Serena Wang; Motor Skills and Self-Perception of 3- to 7-Year-Old Children with Deprivation Amblyopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(9):1028.
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A fundamental function of the brain is to use visual information to guide purposeful, goal-directed behaviors to interact with objects. This function depends on both the saccadic eye movements necessary to direct our eyes toward the object of interest and in the planning and online control of the fine motor skills needed to manipulate objects. Motor skill competence is a major contributor to self-perception, which is an important influence on well-being and quality of life. Here we examine motor skills and self-perception of 3- to 7-year-old children with deprivation amblyopia.
Children aged 3-7 years old (preschool – 2nd grade) were enrolled, including 15 with deprivation amblyopia due to congenital or infantile dense unilateral cataract and 20 control children. Mean age was 5.1±1.2 years. Amblyopic eye VA ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 logMAR. Fellow eye and controls’ VA ranged from -0.1 to 0.1 logMAR. Self-perception was assessed using the Pictorial Scale of Competence and Acceptance for Young Children, which provides scores ranging from 1-4 for cognitive and physical competence scales, and for peer and maternal acceptance scales. Motor skills were evaluated on a 10-point scale with the Manual Dexterity and Aiming & Catching scales of the Movement ABC-2.
Children with deprivation amblyopia had significantly worse manual dexterity than control children (mean manual dexterity score±SD: 8.6±2.7 vs 11.8±3.2; t33=3.15, p=0.003) but we were unable to identify a difference in mean aiming & catching scores. Four children were classified as “at risk” (scores of 4-6) for manual dexterity and 4 children were “at risk” for aiming and catching skills. Children with deprivation amblyopia reported lower peer acceptance and physical competence compared to controls children (t33=2.23, p=0.03 and t33=2.39 p=0.02). Among amblyopic children, peer acceptance scores were correlated with manual dexterity (r=0.48, p=0.035) and physical competence scores were correlated with aiming and catching skills (r=0.47, p=0.04).
Our findings of impaired motor skills and self-perception of lower peer acceptance and physical competence identify consequences of altered visual development for children with deprivation amblyopia in their everyday life.
This abstract was presented at the 2019 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Vancouver, Canada, April 28 - May 2, 2019.
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