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Chung-Jung Chiu, Alpdogan Kantarci, Ronald Klein; Infection Patterns of Periodontal Microbiota and Age-related Macular Degeneration. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(9):1722.
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Specific combinations of periodontal bacteria are associated with risk for the various forms of periodontitis. Our recent analysis in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) suggested that such specificity is also related to the risk for human extra-oral diseases. We conducted a case-control study to test our hypothesis that independent of periodontitis, infection patterns of periodontal microbiota are associated with the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Using principle component analysis (PCA), we first characterized six patterns (P1-P6) of 21 serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels to periodontal bacteria. To evaluate the relationships between the six patterns and the activity/severity of periodontitis, we related the mean number of tooth sites that bled on probing (mBOP) and mean clinical attachment loss (mCAL) to each pattern. We then related the six IgG patterns, mBOP, and mCAL to the odds of early AMD (n=190 cases) among subjects aged 60 years or older in the NHANES III.
Only two (P1 and P5) of the six patterns were significantly associated with the extent of periodontitis (mCAL) but none of the six patterns was related to the activity of periodontitis (mBOP). Our multivariate logistic analysis indicated that P1 (odds ratios (OR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63 to 0.69), P2 (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.82 to 0.91), and P6 (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.92) were associated with decreased risk for early AMD, and P3 (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.34), P4 (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.22), and P5 (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.38 to 1.63) were associated with increased risk for early AMD. The extent (mCAL) but not the activity (mBOP) of periodontitis was significantly associated with the risk for early AMD (P=0.04). Further adjusting for the two periodontitis measurements, mBOP and mCAL, in the models did not change the associations between the six IgG patterns and early AMD.
This study suggests that independent of periodontitis, infections of specific combinations of periodontal microbiota may be associated with AMD. Our findings imply that oral microbiota play a role in retinal eye health.
This abstract was presented at the 2019 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Vancouver, Canada, April 28 - May 2, 2019.
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