July 2019
Volume 60, Issue 9
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   July 2019
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • J Peter Gierow
    Department of Medicine and Optometry, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden
  • Angie Garcia
    Department of Medicine and Optometry, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden
  • Ida Eliasson
    Department of Medicine and Optometry, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   J Peter Gierow, None; Angie Garcia, None; Ida Eliasson, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  Supported by a Faculty Research Grant (JPG) by the Faculty of Health & Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, a Minor Fields Stipend, SIDA (AGG) and by Lions Club travel grant (IE).
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science July 2019, Vol.60, 2738. doi:
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      J Peter Gierow, Angie Garcia, Ida Eliasson; DRY EYES IN GUATEMALA AND INDIA.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(9):2738.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose : Many studies on prevalence of dry eyes (DE) have been conducted in the developed countries, whereas only a few have been focussing on developing countries. Therefore, the present study is aimed at investigating the prevalence among aid-seekers during a Vision-for-All visit to three different sites in Guatemala and compared with a population in Chennai, India.

Methods : 79 patients, 51 women and 28 men at the age of 18-65 years (avg 35 yrs) participated in the study in Guatemala, 156 in Chennai (7-76 yrs, avg 26 yrs). Tear production was measured using the Phenol Red Thread-test (Guatemala) or the Schirmer test (India). A subjective questionnaire was distributed among the patients, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) from Allergan prior to the measurements.

Results : In Guatemala, 53 patients (67%) had a PRT score of less than 10 mm, which according to the manufacturer is indicative of dry eyes. OSDI indicated that 59 patients had severe DE (75 %), and an additional 9 had moderate DE (11 %). 23 had DE both according to OSDI (moderate-severe) and PRT (29 %). In India, OSDI indicated that 9 patients had severe (6 %), and an additional 12 had moderate DE (11 %). 5 patients had DE according to the Schirmer test (3.3 %). 1 had DE according to both (0.7 %).

Conclusions : The subjective questionnaire (OSDI) indicated a high prevalence of DE in Guatemala, 86 %, among people seeking aid during Vision-for-all visits, whereas only 17 % had DE in Chennai, India. Similarly, tear production indicated a higher degree of DE in Guatemala (67 %) than in India (3.3 %), as well as a combination of the two (29 vs 0.7 %).

This abstract was presented at the 2019 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Vancouver, Canada, April 28 - May 2, 2019.


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