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Reiko Arita, Takanori Mizoguchi, Motoko Kawashima, Shima Fukuoka, Shizuka Koh, Rika Shirakawa, Takashi Suzuki, Naoyuki Morishige; Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Meibomian Gland Dysfunction, Posterior Blepharitis, and Dry Eye Revealed by a Population-Based Study in Japan. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(9):2739.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) can be considered as a cause of posterior blepharitis (PB) and is a major cause of dry eye (DE). We evaluated the prevalence of and risk factors for MGD, PB, and DE in a population-based study in Japan.
A total of 356 residents of Takushima Island (6 to 96 years) participated in the study. Participants filled in questionnaires regarding ocular symptoms, systemic diseases, and lifestyle factors. Tear film–related parameters including lipid layer thickness, fluorescein breakup time (BUT), lid margin abnormalities, meiboscore, meibum grade, tear meniscus height, fluorescein staining score, Schirmer test, and the presence of conjunctival papillae, pterygium, and conjunctivolchalasis were evaluated. MGD was defined as the presence of (1) ocular symptom, (2) lid margin abnormality, and (3) obstruction of meibomian gland orifices. PB was defined as the presence of (1) ocular symptom and (2) vascularity of the lid margin. DE was defined according to the Asia Dry Eye Society criteria of (1) the presence of ocular symptom and (2) a fluorescein BUT of ≤5 s. Risk factors for MGD, PB, and DE were analyzed with univariate and multivariate logistic regression.
The prevalence of MGD, PB, and DE was 32.9%, 27.8%, and 33.4%, respectively. The prevalence of MGD was associated with male (odds ratio [OR] of 2.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.25–4.67), age (OR of 1.53, 95% CI of 1.21–1.94), and oral intake of lipid-lowering agents (OR of 3.22, 95% CI of 1.05–9.87). The prevalence of PB was associated with age (OR of 1.52, 95% CI of 1.24–1.86), plugging (OR of 2.87, 95% CI of 1.64–5.01), the presence of a cardiac disease (OR of 2.60, 95% CI of 0.98–6.88), the presence of pterygium (OR of 2.05, 95% CI of 0.97–4.33), and a high body mass index (OR of 1.07, 95% CI of 0.99–1.16). The prevalence of DE was associated with female (OR of 3.36, 95% CI of 1.85–6.07), contact lens wear (OR of 2.84, 95% CI of 1.08–7.43), and the presence of conjunctivochalasis (OR of 2.57, 95% CI of 1.35–4.88) and lid margin abnormalities (OR of 3.16, 95% CI of 1.38–7.23). The coincidence rates for MGD and DE, DE and PB, and MGD and PB were 12.9%. 11.2%, and 16.6%, respectively, and that for all three conditions was 5.9%.
MGD, PB, and DE are common in Japan, with each pair of conditions coexisting in ~10 to 15% of individuals.
This abstract was presented at the 2019 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Vancouver, Canada, April 28 - May 2, 2019.
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