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Isabela Yang, Isabella Batistela Inhesta Sacho, Gabriel Ayub Lopes, Marina Perencin Vizotto, Breno Di Gregorio, Pedro Albuquerque Rebello, Paula Regina Martins da Costa, Nelson Olavo Wolf Choueri, Monica Alves; Dry eye prevalence and main risk factors among brazilian medical students. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(9):2740.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Dry Eye is a common, complex and multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tear film that results in discomfort and visual disturbance. Prevalence rates have broad variation and are mostly based on studies involving older populations. This study aims to evaluate dry eye among a young sample of medical students, to comprehend its symptoms, clinical signs and most commonly associated risk factors.
This ongoing cross sectional prevalence survey has included 348 medical students at University of Campinas in Brazil. All participants completed self-applicable questionnaires about dry eye symptoms: Ocular Surface Disease index (OSDI) and short questionnaire used in the Women Heath Study (WHS), both previously translated and validated to Portuguese. Indeed, a list of risk factors such as contact lens wear, hours of visual display use, medications, ocular surgery and systemic disease associated to dry eye was presented. Those participants who fulfilled criteria for dry eye symptoms underwent a complete clinical evaluation for signs of the disease including, non-invasive objective assessment of the ocular surface (Keratograph 5M), ocular surface staining with fluorescein and lissamine green and Schirmer test.
Mean age 22.8±4.2 years old, 53,2% female and 46.8% male. OSDI score was 14.7±14.5, 12.6% of participants had scores above 33 points and according to WHS questionnaire 17.3% present of severe symptoms and/or previous history of clinical diagnosis. Most common risk factors were visual display use in 68.7%, less than 6 hours of sleep/day 40.6%, contact lens wear 25.7%, oral contraceptive 23.6% and antidepressants 11.7%. Clinical evaluation demonstrated mild signs of ocular surface dysfunction, as meibomian gland dropout and tear film instability.
Dry eye was prevalent condition among medical students. Regarding to the data we recently published, in the general Brazilian population over 40 years old the overall prevalence was found 12.8%. As in this youth population sample prevalence rates were even higher further investigation might be addressed to better understand related factors and clinical presentation.
This abstract was presented at the 2019 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Vancouver, Canada, April 28 - May 2, 2019.
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