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Chi-Wai Wong, Liqiong Teng, Wei Liu, Xiujuan Zhao, Shuhua Li, Mei Li, Xiaoling Liang, Lin Lu, Chenjin Jin, Pinhong Rao, Xialin Liu, Youjin Hu, Jian Luo; Identification and Characterization of Glaucoma with Ocular Hypertension in a Colony of Aged Non-Human Primates. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(9):3803. doi: https://doi.org/.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by the progressive degeneration of the optic nerve. Animal models with naturally occurring ocular hypertension may represent a valuable translational model for studying glaucoma in human. We screened a colony of aged cynomolgus monkeys for elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) as optic neuropathy is thought to be associated with IOP levels. Glaucoma animals with consistent ocular hypertension were further characterized by optical coherence tomography (OCT) for optic nerve thinning.
Two hundred and eighty-eight aged cynomolgus monkeys from a large breeding colony, age 10 to 25 years with an average age of 16 years, were anesthetized and IOP measured by a tonometer (IOP Tonovet, Icare, Finland ). Animals with higher IOP were followed up to confirm IOP elevation and characterized by OCT (Spectralis OCT-Plus, Heidelberg, Germany) for the degeneration of the optic nerve.
From the screening, an IOP range of 14-30 mmHg with an average of 20+ -/+ 2 mmHg was established for this cohort of aged cynomolgus monkeys. Twenty-seven animals with IOP >25 mmHg were followed up for another 3 months to confirm consistency. Three animals with sustained IOP 27.5 +-/+ 0.5 mmHg were subjected to OCT. Nine parameters of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) including the average thickness over all scanning test points (G), the average thickness in the superior (S), nasal (N), inferior (I), temporal (T), NI, TI, TS, and NS quadrants were calculated. Compared to age-matched animals with normal IOP 19.7 -/+ 0.3 mmHg, the G of these animals with high IOP were significantly thinner 82 +-/+ 5.8 vs. 97 +-/+ 2.8 (p < 0.05, Student T-test); particularly, in the TI 123 +-/+ 5.6 vs. 139 +-/+ 5.1 (p < 0.05, Student T-test) and NI 96 +-/+ 7.7 vs. 120 +-/+ 3.9 (p < 0.05, Student T-test) quadrants. In addition, one animal with high IOP had a particular significant reduction in the N and NS quadrants. This animal also had a cup-to-disc ratio of 0.83, consistently with having late stage glaucoma.
A group of animals with spontaneous and sustained elevation of IOP has been identified in a colony of aged cynomolgus monkeys. OCT examination revealed that these animals possess the characteristic RNFL changes observed in patients with glaucoma. This naturally occurring glaucoma model is potentially a valuable asset for the glaucoma research community.
This abstract was presented at the 2019 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Vancouver, Canada, April 28 - May 2, 2019.
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