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Zivile Vieversyte, Andrius Bojarun, Ruta Jaruseviciene, Saulius Galgauskas, Rolandas Zablockis, Rimvydas Asoklis; EFFECT OF OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA ON CORNEAL MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(9):3809.
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Hypoxia can cause a negative effect on cornea, especially on its endothelium. We hypothesise that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can result changing in central corneal thickness (CCT) and corneal morphometrical parameters. We performed a prospective clinical study to evaluate the relationship between the severity of OSA and minimal peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (min. SpO2) with respect to corneal morphological characteristics.
Patients with OSA, diagnosed by full-night polysomnography, prior to the treatment, were included in the study. The patients with OSA were divided into 3 groups according to their Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) values. The control group was examined to exclude the possibility of OSA and ocular diseases. Participants had no diabetes mellitus. The following data were recorded: age, gender, ophthalmologic evaluation and polysomnography results.
A total of 114 eyes were examined: 74 eyes in the study group and 40 eyes in the control group. Mean age was 56.5±6.2 years and male to female ratio was 1,7:1 in the study group. After analyzing the results of CCT, cell density (ECD), coefficient of variation (CV) and percentage of cell hexagonality (HEX) of the corneal endothelium, only the mean values of CCT and ECD were significantly different between the patients and the control group (p< 0.05). The mean CCT, ECD, CV and HEX values in the group of OSA patients were 535.28±21.32, 2632.83±333.46, 31.81±3.90, and 55.62±6.90 respectively. The mean CCT and ECD values for each group were lower than the control group. Significant negative correlation was found between CCT and AHI, and also between ECD and AHI values (respectively r = -0.390, p = 0.011 and r = -0.109, p = 0.040) and weak positive correlation between CCT and min. SpO2, and also between ECD and min. SpO2 (r = 0.282, p = 0.020 and r = -0.332,p = 0.018). CV and HEX did not significantly differ between groups and did not correlate with polysomnography results (p> 0.05).
Hypoxia causes significant changes in corneal thickness and endotheliocytes density. The central corneal thickness and endotheliocytes density were significantly different among patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The severity of hypoxemia and the increase in apnea-hypopnea index values reduce the patient's central corneal thickness and endotheliocytes density.
This abstract was presented at the 2019 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Vancouver, Canada, April 28 - May 2, 2019.
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