July 2019
Volume 60, Issue 9
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   July 2019
Automated assessment of ocular deviations using a consumer-grade eye tracker and 3D display
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Tina Yitian Gao
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Lisa Marie Hamm
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Joanna Black
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Philip RK Turnbull
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Peter Bex
    Department of Psychology, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • Shuan Dai
    Department of Ophthalmology, Queensland Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    Department of Ophthalmology, Auckland District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Steven C Dakin
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Tina Gao, None; Lisa Hamm, None; Joanna Black, None; Philip Turnbull, None; Peter Bex, None; Shuan Dai, None; Steven Dakin, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  Auckland Academic Health Alliance Collaboration Research Grant 2017, reference number 3715217
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science July 2019, Vol.60, 4429. doi:https://doi.org/
  • Views
  • Share
  • Tools
    • Alerts
      ×
      This feature is available to authenticated users only.
      Sign In or Create an Account ×
    • Get Citation

      Tina Yitian Gao, Lisa Marie Hamm, Joanna Black, Philip RK Turnbull, Peter Bex, Shuan Dai, Steven C Dakin; Automated assessment of ocular deviations using a consumer-grade eye tracker and 3D display. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(9):4429. doi: https://doi.org/.

      Download citation file:


      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

      ×
  • Supplements
Abstract

Purpose : The clinical gold-standard for detecting strabismus and measuring ocular alignment are the cover/uncover test and the prism alternate cover test (PACT) respectively. Administration of these tests require skilled clinicians and considerable time, and results are variable between examiners. We investigated whether a digital alternating cover test (ACT) performed using a consumer-grade eye tracker and 3D display can provide an automated, efficient and objective assessment of eye alignment.

Methods : We tested 23 adult participants (age 20-51 years, including 4 with strabismus) on both a 9-point digital ACT and a standard clinical PACT. Both tests were conducted at a 55cm viewing distance. For the digital ACT, participants wore stereo glasses and fixated/followed a target on a computer monitor, while both eyes were tracked. The target was presented monocularly and binocularly at a series of 9 locations spanning ±15° horizontally and ±12° vertically from primary gaze. Re-fixation eye movements made in response to stimulus change were used to detect strabismus and to quantify deviation angle. At least 3 measurements were taken for left and right eye fixing at each target location (total test time: 3-4 min) and the average of these values quantified deviation angle for each combination of target location and fixing eye. The digital ACT was performed twice for each participant to examine internal reliability.

Results : At primary gaze, mean horizontal angle for left eye fixing was 0.24 ± SD 9.84Δ for the digital ACT and -2.70 ± SD 9.60Δ for the clinical PACT (Spearman’s r = 0.86, p<0.0001), and for right eye fixing was -0.05 ± SD 9.09Δ for the digital ACT and -2.74 ± SD 9.32Δ for the clinical PACT (Spearman’s r = 0.87, p<0.0001). The digital ACT measures for left and right eye fixing respectively were on average 2.9Δ (95% limit of agreement [LOA]: ±4.6) and 3.0Δ (95% LOA: ±6.1) more eso than the clinical PACT, which may be due to stimuli differences. Measurements were consistent between the two repeats of the digital ACT, with mean differences of -0.4Δ (95% LOA: ± 4.6) and -0.2Δ (95% LOA: ± 5.5) for left and right eye fixing.

Conclusions : Low-cost eye trackers and 3D displays can be used to quickly assess ocular deviations at multiple gaze directions. Results strongly correlated with standard clinical PACT. This type of test may be useful in clinical settings, such as for repeated measurements or for children.

This abstract was presented at the 2019 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Vancouver, Canada, April 28 - May 2, 2019.

×
×

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

Sign in or purchase a subscription to access this content. ×

You must be signed into an individual account to use this feature.

×