July 2019
Volume 60, Issue 9
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   July 2019
Short periods of darkness may reduce compensation for experimentally-imposed defocus in marmosets
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Xiaoying Zhu
    Biological and Vision Sciences, State University of New York, College of Optometry, Long Beach, New York, United States
  • Peter Yoon
    State University of New York, College of Optometry, New York, United States
  • Gulnoza Azieva
    State University of New York, College of Optometry, New York, United States
  • Stephen Dellostritto
    State University of New York, College of Optometry, New York, United States
  • Victor Lin
    State University of New York, College of Optometry, New York, United States
  • Amy Pope
    State University of New York, College of Optometry, New York, United States
  • David Troilo
    State University of New York, College of Optometry, New York, United States
  • Ana Nour
    Biological and Vision Sciences, State University of New York, College of Optometry, Long Beach, New York, United States
  • Alexandra Benavente-Perez
    Biological and Vision Sciences, State University of New York, College of Optometry, Long Beach, New York, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Xiaoying Zhu, Euclid Systems Corporation (R); Peter Yoon, None; Gulnoza Azieva, None; Stephen Dellostritto, None; Victor Lin, None; Amy Pope, None; David Troilo, Alcon (C); Ana Nour, None; Alexandra Benavente-Perez, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science July 2019, Vol.60, 4811. doi:https://doi.org/
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    • Get Citation

      Xiaoying Zhu, Peter Yoon, Gulnoza Azieva, Stephen Dellostritto, Victor Lin, Amy Pope, David Troilo, Ana Nour, Alexandra Benavente-Perez; Short periods of darkness may reduce compensation for experimentally-imposed defocus in marmosets. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(9):4811. doi: https://doi.org/.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : Studying the temporal integration of visual signals is crucial to understanding how time spent on different visual tasks can affect emmetropization and refractive error development. We previously studied the effects of briefly interrupting contact lens imposed myopic or hyperopic defocus in marmosets by removing the lenses. In this preliminary study we assessed the effect of interrupting lens-imposed defocus with comparably brief periods of darkness.

Methods : Thirty marmosets were treated monocularly with +5D or -5D soft contact lenses for 4 wks from 10 wks of age. In the continuous treatment group, marmosets wore either a +5D (n=8) or –5D (n=13) lens for 9 hrs/day. In the interrupted treatment group, lens-wear was interrupted by 30 mins of darkness twice/day (+5D, n=5; –5D, n=4). On-axis refractive error (RE) and vitreous chamber depth (VC) were measured using an autorefractor and high frequency A-scan biometry at baseline and after 4 wks of treatment.

Results : Wearing lenses continuously significantly changed RE and growth rates in the treated eys (relative change in RE: +5D, +1.9 ± 1.0 D, –5D, –1.9 ± 0.5 D, p<0.05; relative change in VC growth rate: +5D: –0.7 ± 0.4 μm/day, –5D: +3.9 ± 0.8 μm/day, p<0.01). Although not statistically significant, interrupting positive lens wear with periods of darkness appears to reduce compensation for imposed myopia by preventing reduced eye growth (+5D continuous vs. interrupted: RE: +1.9 ± 1.0 D vs. +1.0 ± 0.5 D, p=0.40; VC: –0.7 ± 0.4 µm/day vs. +0.7 ± 0.8 μm/day, p=0.08). Interrupting negative lens wear appears to reduce compensation for imposed hyperopia by reducing eye growth (–5 D continuous vs. interrupted: RE: –1.9 ± 0.5 D vs. 0.0 ± 0.3 D, p<0.05; growth rates: +3.9 ± 0.8 μm/day vs. +1.1 ± 0.9 μm/day, p=0.10).

Conclusions : Similar to interrupting positive and negative lens wear with brief periods of vision, interrupting lens wear with brief periods of darkenss, although not statistically significant for all compariosns, appears to reduce compensation for imposed defocus. Additional animals are being tested to increase statistical power to fully test this hypothesis. If confirmed in this primate model, these results would be similar to those described in other species, supporting the existence of non-linear temporal integration of the visual signal, which may have clinical implications for myopia control in school-aged children.

This abstract was presented at the 2019 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Vancouver, Canada, April 28 - May 2, 2019.

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