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Jong-Soo Lee, Ji-Eun Lee, Seung il Kim, Jong Heun Lee; A Comparative study of Cytotoxicities and Anti-allergic Effects by Topical Ocular Dual-action Anti-allergic Agents. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(9):5118.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicities and anti-allergic effect of the topical ocular dual-action anti-allergic agents (alcaftadine 0.25%, bepotastine besilate 1.5%, and olopatadine HCL 0.1%) on cultured human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) and conjunctival epithelial cells.
A methylthiazolyltetrazolium(MTT)-based calorimetric assay was used to assess cytotoxicities using HCECs at concentrations of 10, 20 or 30% for exposure durations of 30 min, 1h, 2h, 12h or 24h. Cellular morphologies were evaluated by inverted phase-contrast and electron microscopy and wound scratch test. Real-time PCR was used to quantify anti-allergic effects on cultured human conjunctival cells treated with Aspergillus antigen.
Cell viabilities decreased in time- and concentration-dependent manners. Cells showed microvilli loss, cytoplasmic vacuoles, and nuclear condensation when exposed to anti-allergic agents; alcaftadine was found to be least cytotoxic. Alcaftadine treated HCECs monolayers exhibited the best wound healing followed by bepotastine and olopatadine (p<0.001). All agents significantly reduced the gene expressions of allergic cytokines (IL-5, IL-25, eotaxin, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, thymic stromal lymphopoietin) and alcaftadine had the greatest effect (p<0.001 in all cases).
Alcaftadine seems to have less side effects and better therapeutic effects than the other two anti-allergic agents tested. It may be more beneficial to use less toxic agents for patients with ocular surface risk factors or presumed symptoms of toxicity.
This abstract was presented at the 2019 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Vancouver, Canada, April 28 - May 2, 2019.
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