July 2019
Volume 60, Issue 9
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   July 2019
Effect of the age of myopia onset, environmental factors and genetic risk on myopia in the CREAM Consortium
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Katie Williams
    Section of Academic Ophthalmology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
  • Pirro G Hysi
    Section of Academic Ophthalmology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
  • Sonoko Sensaki
    Myopia Unit, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore
  • Willem Tideman
    Erasmus Medical Center, Netherlands
  • Seyhan Yazar
    Lions Eye Institute, Western Australia, Australia
  • juho wedenoja
    Central Hospital of Central Finland, Finland
  • Mingguang He
    University of Melbourne, South Australia, Australia
  • Olavi Parssinen
    Central Hospital of Central Finland, Finland
  • David A Mackey
    Lions Eye Institute, Western Australia, Australia
  • Caroline C W Klaver
    Erasmus Medical Center, Netherlands
  • Christopher J Hammond
    Section of Academic Ophthalmology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
  • Seang-Mei Saw
    Myopia Unit, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Katie Williams, None; Pirro Hysi, None; Sonoko Sensaki, None; Willem Tideman, None; Seyhan Yazar, None; juho wedenoja, None; Mingguang He, None; Olavi Parssinen, None; David Mackey, None; Caroline Klaver, None; Christopher Hammond, None; Seang-Mei Saw, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science July 2019, Vol.60, 5226. doi:
  • Views
  • Share
  • Tools
    • Alerts
      ×
      This feature is available to authenticated users only.
      Sign In or Create an Account ×
    • Get Citation

      Katie Williams, Pirro G Hysi, Sonoko Sensaki, Willem Tideman, Seyhan Yazar, juho wedenoja, Mingguang He, Olavi Parssinen, David A Mackey, Caroline C W Klaver, Christopher J Hammond, Seang-Mei Saw; Effect of the age of myopia onset, environmental factors and genetic risk on myopia in the CREAM Consortium. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(9):5226.

      Download citation file:


      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

      ×
  • Supplements
Abstract

Purpose : To investigate the effect of age of myopia onset, environmental factors and a myopia genetic risk score on refractive error, axial length and high myopia

Methods : Studies in the Consortium for Refractive Error and Myopia (CREAM) with data on age of myopia onset, refractive error, and ocular biometry at adolescent or early adult examination, together with environmental factors and genetic loci for refractive error were included. Data from individuals with conditions that could alter refraction were excluded. The effect of the above factors were considered separately and collectively in multivariable regression models:
Dependent variable = β0 + β1 Age of myopia onset + β2 Age at visit + β3 gender + β4 genetic risk score + β5 outdoor + β6 nearwork

Three outcomes were considered - spherical equivalent (SE), axial length (AL) adjusted for height, and the dichotomous outcome of high (SE <-5.0D) vs mild to moderate myopia (SE <-0.5D). A fixed-effect meta-analysis was performed with sub-analysis by age at visit and ethnicity.

Results : Complete phenotypic and genotypic data from four European and two Asian studies were included in the meta-analysis (n=1947). In a basic model age of myopia onset, adjusted for age at visit and sex, was significantly associated with both SE (β 0.13, 95% CI 0.11–0.15)and high myopia (odds ratio (OR) 0.90, 95% CI 0.87–0.90). When the genetic risk score and environmental factors were included in the full model, age of onset remained significant with a comparable effect for both SE (β 0.10, 95% CI 0.08-0.12) and high myopia (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.88–0.96). Total SE variance explained ranged from 0.06 to 0.54 in the basic and 0.09 to 0.54 in the full model. Mean area under the curve statistics in high myopia models ranged from 0.55 to 0.92 in the basic and 0.61 to 0.93 in the full model, with higher estimates in studies comprised of older participants. Age of myopia onset was significantly associated with axial length in all studies but this became non-significant in the meta-analysis

Conclusions : Age of myopia onset was a significant determinant of SE, AL and high myopia. In explanatory models, only moderate benefit was gained incorporating genetic and environmental factors compared to age of myopia onset alone. This is clinically relevant - early onset myopia is most likely to progress to high myopia, andpotentially, visually disabling pathologic myopia in later life.

This abstract was presented at the 2019 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Vancouver, Canada, April 28 - May 2, 2019.

×
×

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

Sign in or purchase a subscription to access this content. ×

You must be signed into an individual account to use this feature.

×