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Danny Diaz, Mohammad Dahrouj, Tedi Begaj, Jan A. Kylstra; A Novel 3D-Printed Eye Model for Practicing Indirect Ophthalmoscopy and Retinal Laser Photocoagulation. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(9):590.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To describe the design and construction of a novel 3D-printed model eye that allows lifelike simulation of indirect ophthalmoscopy and indirect laser retinal photocoagulation.
The model was based on the Gullstrand-LeGrand schematic eye model. However, the model was enlarged to allow for construction of support structures to house a 60-diopter double aspheric examination lens that mimics the effective lens found in a human eye. Tinkercad (Autodesk, San Rafael, Ca), a browser-based 3D design platform, was used to design the model. Following design completion, the STL (stereolithography) file was exported into Cura splicing software (Ultimaker, Geldermalsen, Netherlands). The finalized code was sent to a Ultimaker 3D Printer (Monoprice, California, USA) for construction using polylactic acid (PLA) material, a biodegradable thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived from starch. Separate "irides" with different pupillary diameters were printed to simulate un-dilated and dilated states. A 2.5x2.5cm square Optos (Dunfermline, Scotland, UK) fundus photo printed on an inkjet printer at 1200 dpi resolution was used to create a model fundus. The 60-diopter lens was finally inserted into the anterior support structure, which completed the model.
This model produces a high quality, inverted, and aerial image that closely simulates clinical indirect ophthalmoscopy. The pupil size can be adjusted, and a myriad of retinal pathology can be simulated and interchanged. One of the keys to our model is the use of a 60-diopter double aspheric lens as the optical component. This high-quality lens (or similar 78-diopter lens) is owned by most trainees and does not add to the cost of our model. Binocular indirect laser photocoagulation can also be simulated, as white laser burns will appear on the glossy inkjet photo.
Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and indirect laser photocoagulation are technically challenging diagnostic and therapeutic techniques to learn. This novel 3D-printed eye model allows for lifelike simulation of indirect ophthalmoscopy and laser retinal photocoagulation. Our high quality model allow trainees to practice these procedures in a safe environment and repeat them until mastered.
This abstract was presented at the 2019 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Vancouver, Canada, April 28 - May 2, 2019.
Base model design (top left). Components of 3D printed model (top right). View of posterior fundus through the model (bottom left) and following laser photocoagulation (bottom right).
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