July 2019
Volume 60, Issue 9
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   July 2019
Low-cost, smartphone based frequency doubling technology visual field testing using virtual reality
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Karam AlRahman Alawa
    University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • Elaine Han
    Anne Bates Leach Eye Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States
  • Mohamed Sayed
    Anne Bates Leach Eye Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States
  • Alejandro Arboleda
    Ophthalmic Biophysics Center, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States
  • Heather Durkee
    Ophthalmic Biophysics Center, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States
  • Mariela Aguilar
    Ophthalmic Biophysics Center, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States
  • Ryan Nolan
    Anne Bates Leach Eye Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States
  • Richard K Lee
    Anne Bates Leach Eye Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Karam Alawa, None; Elaine Han, None; Mohamed Sayed, None; Alejandro Arboleda, None; Heather Durkee, None; Mariela Aguilar, None; Ryan Nolan, None; Richard Lee, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  This work was financially supported in part by the Edward D. and Janet K. Robson Foundation, the Florida Lions Eye Bank, Drs. KR Olsen and ME Hildebrandt, NIH center grant P30EY14801, an unrestricted grant from Research to Prevent Blindness, and the Henri and Flore Lesieur Foundation (JMP).
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science July 2019, Vol.60, 2481. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      Karam AlRahman Alawa, Elaine Han, Mohamed Sayed, Alejandro Arboleda, Heather Durkee, Mariela Aguilar, Ryan Nolan, Richard K Lee; Low-cost, smartphone based frequency doubling technology visual field testing using virtual reality. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(9):2481.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : Glaucoma is a progressive disease that eventually leads to vision loss. Frequency doubling technology (FDT) based perimetry is a relatively inexpensive and portable visual field test with a short testing time that has shown reasonable efficacy, sensitivity, and specificity in screening for glaucoma in clinic and community-based settings. Current visual field screening machines are bulky and expensive, limiting their accessibility, affordability, and use. The aim of our study was to develop a portable, low-cost smartphone-based FDT perimeter for visual field screening.

Methods : Twenty-nine eyes of fifteen subjects (average age 61 ± 14) with new-onset or chronic primary open angle glaucoma were tested and compared with the Humphrey Zeiss FDT and the newly developed smartphone FDT using the C-20 testing pattern. Mann-Whitney, Bland-Altman, and linear regression analyses were performed to assess statistical difference, agreement, and correlation, respectively, between the two devices by comparing the total number of defects identified in each quadrant.

Results : No statistically significant difference was found between the two FDT exams in all sections (Mann-Whitney test, p > 0.05). The Bland-Altman scatterplot indicated good agreement and the linear regression resulted in a high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.72). The average testing time was 56 ± 29s and 65 ± 24s for the Humphrey Zeiss FDT and the smartphone FDT, respectively. All tests were considered reliable with a false positive and false negative score <33% on both exams.

Conclusions : Comparative testing of the smartphone FDT shows no significant difference when compared to the Humphrey Zeiss FDT. This technology is affordable and accessible and can be used in a variety of settings, especially in community and international glaucoma screenings. Ongoing studies are being performed to quantitatively compare the smartphone FDT to the gold-standard Humphrey Field Analyzer.

This abstract was presented at the 2019 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Vancouver, Canada, April 28 - May 2, 2019.

 

The smartphone FDT consisting of an Android smartphone, virtual reality headset, and bluetooth remote.

The smartphone FDT consisting of an Android smartphone, virtual reality headset, and bluetooth remote.

 

Linear regression analysis for the Humphrey Zeiss FDT and the smartphone FDT.

Linear regression analysis for the Humphrey Zeiss FDT and the smartphone FDT.

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