July 2019
Volume 60, Issue 9
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   July 2019
The association between outdoor time, serum vitamin D, and myopia in preterm children with or without history of retinopathy of prematurity
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Hung Da Chou
    Ophthalmology Department, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan
  • Wei-Chi Wu
    Ophthalmology Department, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan
    School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan City, Taiwan
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Hung Da Chou, None; Wei-Chi Wu, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science July 2019, Vol.60, 3161. doi:
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      Hung Da Chou, Wei-Chi Wu; The association between outdoor time, serum vitamin D, and myopia in preterm children with or without history of retinopathy of prematurity. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(9):3161.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose : To assess the relationship of serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D) level and near-work/outdoor time with myopia in children with history of preterm births.

Methods : Ninety-nine children were recruited from our previous retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) study cohort and underwent comprehensive eye examination including cycloplegic refractive examination using an autorefractor. Data of serum 25(OH)D concentration, detailed questionnaires on near-work and outdoor time and activities and other potential risk factors were collected. The association between these variables and myopia was investigated using univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses.

Results : The mean age was 6.8 ± 0.7 years. Forty-two children (42.4%) had history of ROP. Among them, thirty-eight children (90.5%) were treated either with intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (n = 20), laser photocoagulation (n = 6), or both (n = 12). Twenty-three children (23.2%) were myopic and 76 children (76.8%) were nonmyopic. Comparing the myopic to the nonmyopic group, the mean gestational age was smaller (29.1 ± 4.3 and 30.9 ± 4.4 week, respectively), and the birth weight was lower (1270 ± 647 and 1545 ± 759 gm, respectively) in the myopic group, although not significant (P = .104 and P = .12, respectively). The serum 25(OH)D level was similar in the myopic and the nonmypic group (21.1 ± 5.1 and 21.0 ± 4.9 ng/ml, respectively; P = .96), and was not correlated with near-work/outdoor time or spherical equivalent. After adjusting for age, sex, parental myopia, outdoor time, near-work time, and ROP severity, it showed that more time spent outdoors was associated with a lower risk of myopia (odds ratio [OR], 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02–0.85); and type 2 ROP or above was associated with an increased risk of myopia (OR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.04–10.81).

Conclusions : In school-aged children with history of preterm births with or without ROP, longer outdoor time might have protective effect against myopia. Serum 25(OH)D level was not correlated with outdoor time or spherical equivalent.

This abstract was presented at the 2019 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Vancouver, Canada, April 28 - May 2, 2019.



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