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Xue-Bi Cai, Yi-Han Zheng, De-Fu Chen, Fang-Yue Zhou, Lu-Qi Xia, Xin-Ran Wen, Yi-Min Yuan, Fang Han, Shun-Yu Piao, Wenjuan Zhuang, Fan Lu, Jia Qu, A-Yong Yu, Zi-Bing Jin; Expanding the Phenotypic and Genotypic Landscape of Nonsyndromic High Myopia: A Cross-Sectional Study in 731 Chinese Patients. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(12):4052-4062. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.19-27921.
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High myopia (HM) is defined as a refractive error worse than −6.00 diopter (D). This study aims to update the phenotypic and genotypic landscape of nonsyndromic HM and to establish a biological link between the phenotypic traits and genetic deficiencies.
A cross-sectional study involving 731 participants varying in refractive error, axial length (AL), age, myopic retinopathy, and visual impairment. The phenotypic traits were analyzed by four ophthalmologists while mutational screening was performed in eight autosomal causative genes. Finally, we assessed the clinical relevance of identified mutations under the guidance of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.
The relationship between refractive error and AL varied in four different age groups ranging from 3- to 85-years old. In adult groups older than 21 years, 1-mm increase in AL conferred 10.84% higher risk of pathologic retinopathy (Category ≥2) as well as 7.35% higher risk of low vision (best-corrected visual acuities <0.3) with P values < 0.001. The prevalence rates of pathologic retinopathy and low vision both showed a nonlinear positive correlation with age. Forty-five patients were confirmed to harbor pathogenic mutations, including 20 novel mutations. These mutations enriched the mutational pool of nonsyndromic HM to 1.5 times its previous size and enabled a statistically significant analysis of the genotype–phenotype correlation. Finally, SLC39A5, CCDC111, BSG, and P4HA2 were more relevant to eye elongation, while ZNF644, SCO2, and LEPREL1 appeared more relevant to refracting media.
Our findings shed light on how multiple HM-related phenotypes are associated with each other and their link with gene variants.
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