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Samy Omri, Houda Tahiri, Wyston Chadwick Pierre, Michel Desjarlais, Isabelle Lahaie, Sarah-Eve Loiselle, Flavio Rezende, Gregory Lodygensky, Terence E. Hebert, Huy Ong, Sylvain Chemtob; Propranolol Attenuates Proangiogenic Activity of Mononuclear Phagocytes: Implication in Choroidal Neovascularization. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(14):4632-4642. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-25502.
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Targeting β-adrenergic receptor signaling with propranolol has emerged as a potential candidate to counteract choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Little is known of its effect on macrophages, which play a critical role in CNV. We investigated the effect of propranolol on angiogenic response of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs).
The angiogenic effect of propranolol was evaluated in laser-induced CNV model. Mice received intraperitoneal injections of propranolol (6 mg/kg/d) or vehicle. CNV area and inflammatory cells were determined respectively by using lectin staining and an anti–IBA-1 antibody on RPE/choroid flat mounts. Inflammatory gene expression was evaluated by quantitative (q) PCR analysis. Mechanisms of propranolol was studied in MP cell lines J774 and RAW264.7 and in primary peritoneal macrophages. Expression of pro- and antiangiogenic mediators was studied. In addition, effects of propranolol treatment of MPs was assessed on choroidal explant.
CNV was attenuated by propranolol and concomitantly associated with decreased inflammatory mediators IL-6 and TNFα, albeit with accumulation of (β-adrenoceptor harboring) MPs in the CNV area. Conditioned media from MPs preincubated with propranolol exerted antiangiogenic effects. Treatment of J774 confirmed the attenuation of inflammatory response to propranolol and increased cleaved caspase-3 on choroidal explant. We found that propranolol increased pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) expression in MPs. Trapping of PEDF with an antibody abrogated antiangiogenic effects of propranolol. PEDF was also detected in CNV-associated MPs.
We hereby show that propranolol confers on MPs antiangiogenic properties by increasing PEDF expression, which complements its effects on vascular tissue resulting in inhibition of choroidal vasoproliferation in inflammatory conditions. The study supports possible use of propranolol as a therapeutic modality for CNV.
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