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Lili Song, Yanxia Huang, Xinli Zhang, Shaoping Han, Min Hou, Hongxia Li; Downregulation of microRNA-224-3p Hampers Retinoblastoma Progression via Activation of the Hippo-YAP Signaling Pathway by Increasing LATS2. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2020;61(3):32. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.61.3.32.
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The pivotal role of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) has been proved in the pathogenesis of retinoblastoma. miR-224-3p is demonstrated to be involved in several tumors. However, the underlying mechanism of miR-224-3p in retinoblastoma is yet to be investigated. Therefore, this study was designed to identify the regulation of miR-224-3p in human retinoblastoma.
The expression pattern of miR-224-3p and large tumor suppressor 2 (LATS2) in retinoblastoma was measured by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Afterward, the interaction between miR-224-3p and LATS2 was identified using a dual luciferase reporter gene assay. Next, gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches were employed to examine the effects of miR-224-3p and LATS2 as well as their interaction on cell apoptosis, proliferation and angiogenesis abilities, and tumorigenesis. Whether the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway was involved in tumorigenesis was analyzed by determining downstream genes.
LATS2 was downregulated in retinoblastoma, and its overexpression promoted apoptosis and suppressed proliferation of retinoblastoma cells. miR-224-3p, highly expressed in retinoblastoma, inhibited the expression of its target gene LATS2, which inhibited activation of the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway. Suppression of miR-224-3p promoted apoptosis while suppressing the proliferation of retinoblastoma cells and angiogenesis. Tumor progression induced by upregulation of miR-224-3p was diminished by restoration of LATS2. It was observed that tumor growth and angiogenesis were reduced by depleted miR-224-3p in the animal experiments.
The present study suggests that miR-224-3p targets LATS2 and blocks the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway activation, thus preventing the progression of retinoblastoma, which could be a new therapeutic target for retinoblastoma.
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