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Yee-Ling Wong, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Chee-Wai Wong, Yin-Bun Cheung, Ryan Eyn Kidd Man, Anna Chwee-Hong Yeo, Gemmy Cheung, Audrey Chia, Anthony Kuo, Marcus Ang, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui, Tien-Yin Wong, Jie Jin Wang, Ching-Yu Cheng, Quan V. Hoang, Ecosse Lamoureux, Seang-Mei Saw; Six-Year Changes in Myopic Macular Degeneration in Adults of the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2020;61(4):14. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.61.4.14.
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To examine the 6-year incidence, progression, associated risk factors, and impact of myopic macular degeneration (MMD) in a myopic population in Singapore.
We examined myopic (spherical equivalent ≤–0.5 diopters) adults (N = 2157 persons and 3661 eyes) who were phakic at baseline and participated in both baseline and 6-year follow-up visits of the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study. Eye examinations, including visual acuity, subjective refraction and axial length (AL) measurements, were performed. MMD was graded from fundus photographs following the META-PM classification. Vision-related quality of life was assessed with Rasch-transformed scores from reading, mobility, and emotional domains of the Impact of Vision Impairment questionnaire.
The 6-year eye-specific incidence of MMD among myopic eyes was 1.2% (95% CI, 0.9%–1.6%). Older age, worse spherical equivalent, and longer AL at baseline were associated with MMD incidence (all P < 0.001). The 6-year eye-specific progression of MMD in 288 eyes with baseline MMD was 17.0% (95% CI, 12.6%–21.4%). More severe MMD at baseline, worse spherical equivalent, and longer AL (all P < 0.05) were associated with MMD progression. Patients with Meta-PM categories 3 and 4 had worse best-corrected visual acuity and poorer vision-related quality of life outcomes than those without MMD (all P < 0.05).
Over a 6-year period, one in 80 myopic eyes developed MMD and one in six with existing MMD had MMD progression. Myopia severity and AL were strong predictors of MMD development and progression. Eyes with severe MMD were at higher risk of MMD progression than those with less severe MMD, and were associated with poorer visual acuity and vision-related quality of life.
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