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Viswanathan Ramasubramanian, Dawn Meyer, Pete S. Kollbaum, Arthur Bradley; Experimental Model of Far Temporal Field Negative Dysphotopsia Generated in Phakic Eyes. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2020;61(5):24. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.61.5.24.
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The axial separation between the iris and the intraocular lens (IOL) in pseudophakic eyes can cause rays originating from the far temporal field to miss the IOL, resulting in negative dysphotopsia (ND). We developed an experimental model to test the hypothesis that obstruction of rays from the far temporal field can generate ND and an accompanying loss of visual sensitivity in the far temporal field.
The right eyes of 10 phakic subjects were fitted with soft contact lenses containing a 5.50-mm central clear zone and a 12-mm outer diameter opaque annulus. In three of the subjects, eyes were dilated with 1% tropicamide solution, and effective aperture diameters were determined optically (pupil camera) and psychophysically (narrow beam detection). Visual field extent (Goldmann bowl) and temporal and inferotemporal meridian sensitivities (Octopus perimeter) were measured. A wide-angle model was constructed to quantify the impact of the annular opacity on retinal illuminance.
All 10 subjects observed a dark crescent in the far temporal and inferotemporal fields. The opaque annulus reduced effective horizontal pupil diameters from 8 mm to 5.5 mm on-axis and from >2 mm to <1 mm at 90°. Perimetry revealed a 10° reduction in temporal and inferotemporal field extent and increasing loss of sensitivity beyond 70°. The wide-angle model confirmed significant vignetting (>50% beyond 70°), approaching zero retinal illuminance beyond 85°.
Vignetting of rays originating from the far temporal field by axially separated apertures can create symptoms mirroring perceptual reports of negative dysphotopsia in symptomatic pseudophakic patients.
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