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Kenzo S Tomishige, Niro Kasahara; The characteristics of glaucoma in Japanese-Brazilians.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2020;61(7):63.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
The Japanese Community in Brazil comprises the largest Japanese population outside Japan and it is currently under the fourth generation. The clinical features of glaucoma in this particular population has not been described yet. The purpose of this study was to analyze the ophthalmic findings in glaucoma patients of Japanese descents.
This was a retrospective study. All patients with glaucoma seen at one single center were included. The eletronic records were reviewed by the authors and data retrieved included age, gender, glaucoma diagnosis, disease severity, and treatment.
The study included 79 eyes of 40 patients. Mean age was 67.3 ± 11.5 years, 13 were male and 27 female. Thirty-four had primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), 5 had angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) and 1 neovascular glaucoma diagnosis. The mean intraocular pressure (IOP) under medication was 16.4 ± 7.2 mmHg and the mean central corneal thickness (CCT) was 523.3 ± 32.2 µ. The CCT varied from 519.3 ± 35.1 µ in women to 530 ± 18 µ in men. The evaluation of the optic disk indicated a median cup-to-disk ratio of 0.8 (range, 0.3 to 1.0) and median asymmetry 0.1 (0 to 0.6); notching was seen in 25 eyes, peripapillary atrophy in 12 eyes, hemorrhage in 2 eyes, and nasal cup in only one eye. Patients underwent SITA 24-2 visual field (VF) which revealed average mean deviation (MD) and pattern standard deviation (PSD) of -8.3 ± 8.6 dB and 5.9 ± 3.9 dB, respectively. Additionally, the VF showed superior defect in 31 eyes, inferior defect in 10 eyes, central island in 6 eyes, general reduction of sensitivity in 4 eyes, and no defect in 12 eyes. Of 62 eyes which underwent medical therapy, 20 eyes were on 1 medicine and 42 on 2 or more medicines, with a mean number of medication of 1.5 ± 1.1. Laser trabeculoplasty was performed in 2 eyes, laser iridotomy in 7 eyes, trabeculectomy in 1 eye and transscleral diode laser in 1 eye.
The results of this study in Japanese-Brazilians revealed that most patients with glaucoma were female, the most frequent diagnosis was POAG, superior VF defects were more prevalent, and most patients were under topical medical treatment. The phenotypical features of Japanese-Brazilian glaucoma patients resemble those of glaucoma patients in Japan. Genetic factors related to this population might persist through generations abroad.
This is a 2020 ARVO Annual Meeting abstract.
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