June 2020
Volume 61, Issue 7
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2020
Differences in animal holder configuration used in primary blast injury studies affect functional outcomes
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Rachael S Allen
    Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VA Healthcare System, Decatur, Georgia, United States
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • Cara Motz
    Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VA Healthcare System, Decatur, Georgia, United States
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • Anayesha Singh
    Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VA Healthcare System, Decatur, Georgia, United States
    Neuroscience and Behavioral Biology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • Andrew Feola
    Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VA Healthcare System, Decatur, Georgia, United States
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • Lidia Cardelle
    Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VA Healthcare System, Decatur, Georgia, United States
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • Kyle Chesler
    Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VA Healthcare System, Decatur, Georgia, United States
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • Kaavya Gudapati
    Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VA Healthcare System, Decatur, Georgia, United States
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • Sriganesh Ramachandra Rao
    Ophthalmology, Biochemistry, and Neuroscience Program, SUNY – University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, United States
  • Lara Ann Skelton
    Research Service, VA Western NY Healthcare System, Buffalo, New York, United States
  • Steven J. Fliesler
    Ophthalmology, Biochemistry, and Neuroscience Program, SUNY – University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, United States
    Research Service, VA Western NY Healthcare System, Buffalo, New York, United States
  • Machelle T Pardue
    Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VA Healthcare System, Decatur, Georgia, United States
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Rachael Allen, None; Cara Motz, None; Anayesha Singh, None; Andrew Feola, None; Lidia Cardelle, None; Kyle Chesler, None; Kaavya Gudapati, None; Sriganesh Ramachandra Rao, None; Lara Skelton, None; Steven Fliesler, None; Machelle Pardue, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  Department of Veterans Affairs: Rehabilitation R&D Service Career Development Awards (CDA-2 RX002928 to RSA, CDA-2 RX002342 to AJF), MERIT Award (RX002615) and Research Career Scientist Award (RX003134) to MTP; MERIT Award (5IO1 BX002439) to SJF & MTP; and Research Career Scientist Award to SJF. NEI Core Grant P30EY006360.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2020, Vol.61, 688. doi:
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      Rachael S Allen, Cara Motz, Anayesha Singh, Andrew Feola, Lidia Cardelle, Kyle Chesler, Kaavya Gudapati, Sriganesh Ramachandra Rao, Lara Ann Skelton, Steven J. Fliesler, Machelle T Pardue; Differences in animal holder configuration used in primary blast injury studies affect functional outcomes. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2020;61(7):688.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : Blast injury is the signature injury of current military conflicts, and can be influenced by primary, secondary or tertiary forces. Here, we assessed how different animal holder configurations used in an acoustic blast overpressure (ABO) model can affect the type and magnitude of eye and brain injury.

Methods : Anesthetized adult male Long-Evans rats were placed into two different holders: “open” (whole head and neck exposed, body enclosed; n = 7), or “enclosed” (body enclosed, with window for ABO exposure; n = 15). ABO exposure (single blast; 63 kPa, 195 dB-SPL, to right side of head) was performed as previously described (Allen RS et al., J. Neurotrauma, 2018). At 2, 4, and 6 months post-ABO, visual function (optomotor response, OMR) was assessed in ABO- vs. non-ABO-exposed (control) rats (n = 22/group). Cognitive function (Y-maze) was assessed at 3 months post-ABO. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA (Y-maze) and two-way repeated measures ANOVA (OMR).

Results : Ipsilateral ABO-exposed eyes showed similar OMR deficits with both holders, e.g., significant deficits in spatial frequency (p < 0.001) and contrast sensitivity (p < 0.05). Contralateral eyes showed greater OMR deficits with the enclosed vs. the open holder for both spatial frequency (p < 0.01) and contrast sensitivity. ABO-exposed rats exhibited cognitive deficits with the open, but not the enclosed, holder (p < 0.05).

Conclusions : Animal holder configuration used in ABO model experiments can significantly affect outcomes. Using an enclosed holder may cause concussive injury to the contralateral eye due to contact with the holder wall or reflection of blast waves. With the open configuration, coup-contrecoup motion may damage the brain, whereas the enclosed configuration minimizes such motion and provides some protection. These results highlight the secondary and tertiary forces of blast exposure that should be considered when evaluating visual deficits in patients with blast injuries.

This is a 2020 ARVO Annual Meeting abstract.

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