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Krista R Kelly, Reed M Jost, Jeffrey Hunter, Cynthia L Beauchamp, Serena Wang, James Y Tung, Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo; Discordant binocular experience disrupts hand kinematics during visually-guided reaching in children. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2020;61(7):859.
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Eye-hand coordination is essential for normal child development and learning. Discordant binocular experience from childhood strabismus, anisometropia, and unilateral cataract results in impaired sensory and ocular motor outcomes, which can impact the maturation of eye-hand coordination. We assessed sensory factors associated with impaired hand kinematics during visually-guided reaching in children with a history of discordant binocular experience.
Results from 59 children (age 7-13 years) diagnosed with strabismus (n=13), anisometropia (n=23), strabismus + anisometropia (n=14), or unilateral cataract (n=9) were compared to 23 age-similar controls. Hand movements were recorded using the LEAP motion capture device. Children reached out and touched a small dot that appeared in one of four positions (±5° or ±10° horizontally displaced from fixation). Kinematic measures were time-to-reach onset, reach duration, peak velocity, duration of acceleration, and duration of deceleration. Sensory factors included amblyopia (present or not), stereoacuity (nil, measurable), and interocular suppression at near (fusion, suppression). Spearman R correlations were conducted to determine relationships between hand kinematics and sensory outcomes.
Compared with controls, children with no measurable stereoacuity (n=31) had increased total reach duration (mean±SE 519±11 vs. 559±10 msec; p=0.008), increased duration of deceleration (328±10 vs.357±9 msec, p=0.031), and lower peak velocity (1.39±0.04 vs. 1.29±0.03 m/sec, p=0.049). Children with measurable stereoacuity (n=28) did not differ from controls. The same pattern of results was found for those with suppression (n=12), but not for those with fusion (n=47) at near. Increased total reach duration and increased duration of deceleration were correlated with poorer stereoacuity and suppression (all ps<0.025), but not with visual acuity. Amblyopia (n=37) was not related to impaired hand kinematics.
Disrupted binocularity (i.e., nil stereoacuity, suppression), not amblyopia, impacts the development of eye-hand coordination in children. Unlike adults with discordant binocular experience who show longer acceleration duration, longer deceleration in the final approach in children with no measurable stereoacuity may indicate impaired use or poor quality of visual feedback.
This is a 2020 ARVO Annual Meeting abstract.
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