June 2020
Volume 61, Issue 7
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2020
Relationship between Mediterranean diet pattern and macular pigment optical density in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI)
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Tom Lawler
    Nutritional Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Zhe Liu
    Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Lesley Tinker
    Cancer Prevention Research Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States
  • Elizabeth Johnson
    Friedman School of Nutrition and Science Policy, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • Billy R Hammond
    Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States
  • Ronald Gangnon
    Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Corinne Engelman
    Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Robert Wallace
    Epidemiology, University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • Yao Liu
    Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Steven T Bailey
    Ophthalmology, Oregon Health & Science University, Casey Eye Institute, Portland, Oregon, United States
  • Karen M Gehrs
    Ophthalmology, University of Iowa Hospital & Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • Julie A Mares
    Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Tom Lawler, None; Zhe Liu, None; Lesley Tinker, None; Elizabeth Johnson, Ocean Spray (E); Billy Hammond, None; Ronald Gangnon, None; Corinne Engelman, None; Robert Wallace, None; Yao Liu, None; Steven Bailey, None; Karen Gehrs, None; Julie Mares, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  NIH grants EY016886, EY025292, T32 DK007665, N01WH22110, 24152, 32100-2, 32105-6, 32108-9, 32111-13, 32115, 32118-32119, 32122, 2107-26, 42129-32, and 44221 and an unrestricted grant from Research to Prevent Blindness, Inc. to the UW Madison Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2020, Vol.61, 4977. doi:
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      Tom Lawler, Zhe Liu, Lesley Tinker, Elizabeth Johnson, Billy R Hammond, Ronald Gangnon, Corinne Engelman, Robert Wallace, Yao Liu, Steven T Bailey, Karen M Gehrs, Julie A Mares; Relationship between Mediterranean diet pattern and macular pigment optical density in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2020;61(7):4977.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : Higher macular pigment levels, comprised of dietary lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z), are associated with better visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, and may reduce risk for age-related eye disease. We report the associations between an alternative Mediterranean diet pattern (aMed) score and macular pigment optical density (MPOD), in women 53-84 years of age who participated at baseline (2001-2004) and follow-up (2016-2019) CAREDS in-person study visits.

Methods : Diet was assessed at WHI baseline (1994-1998) via food frequency questionnaire, and aMed scores were computed assigning quartile ranks for each of the following eight components: non-starchy vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts, red meat, fish, and the ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fat, and 4 or 0 points for alcohol intake between 5 and 25 grams/day. MPOD was measured via customized heterochromatic flicker photometry at 0.5 degrees from foveal center, relative to 7 degrees. Linear regression was used to describe associations between aMed score and MPOD, in 425 who provided MPOD measures at both study visits, and excluding 121 women who reported use of L/Z-containing supplements (≥ 1 mg/day for at least 1 month) or had intermediate or worse age-related macular degeneration.

Results : Higher aMed score was associated with higher MPOD at CAREDS baseline (mean±SE optical density units (ODU’s): 0.36±0.02 vs. 0.42±0.02 ODU) in aMed tertiles 1 vs. 3; p-trend = 0.01), and at CAREDS2 (0.44±0.02 vs. 0.54±0.03 ODU for aMed tertiles 1 vs. 3; p-trend = 0.003). Higher aMed score was also associated with larger increases in MPOD over 15 years, but only among 78 women with lower MPOD at baseline. (0.16±0.04 vs. 0.27±0.05 for aMed tertiles 1 vs. 3, p-trend = 0.04). The association with MPOD at CAREDS2 was attenuated by serum L/Z adjustment (0.46±0.03 vs. 0.52±0.03 ODU for aMed tertiles 1 vs. 3, p-trend = 0.07).

Conclusions : Higher aMED score was associated with higher MPOD in a cohort of older women, and may be partially explained by higher levels of serum L/Z which reflect a diet rich in these carotenoids, as well as, improved metabolic health, previously related to aMed-type diets. The ability of diet to prospectively increase MPOD may depend on baseline levels of macular pigment.

This is a 2020 ARVO Annual Meeting abstract.

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