June 2020
Volume 61, Issue 7
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2020
Macular Pigment and Retinal Thickness in the Second Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS2), an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Zhe Liu
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Tyler Etheridge
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Amitha Domalpally
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Barbara A Blodi
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Yao Liu
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Thomas Patrick Lawler
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Billy R Hammond
    Department of Psychology, University of Geogia, Athens, Georgia, United States
  • Elizabeth Johnson
    Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • Steven T Bailey
    Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States
  • Robert Wallace
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • Karen M Gehrs
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • Ronald Gangnon
    Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Lesley Tinker
    Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States
  • Julie A Mares
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Zhe Liu, None; Tyler Etheridge, None; Amitha Domalpally, None; Barbara Blodi, None; Yao Liu, None; Thomas Lawler, None; Billy Hammond, None; Elizabeth Johnson, Ocean Spray, Inc, Lakeville, MA (E); Steven Bailey, None; Robert Wallace, None; Karen Gehrs, None; Ronald Gangnon, None; Lesley Tinker, None; Julie Mares, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  NIH grants EY016886, EY025292, T32 DK007665, N01WH22110, 24152, 32100-2, 32105-6, 32108-9, 32111-13, 32115, 32118-32119, 32122, 2107-26, 42129-32, and 44221 and an unrestricted grant from Research to Prevent Blindness, Inc. to the UW Madison Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2020, Vol.61, 4979. doi:
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      Zhe Liu, Tyler Etheridge, Amitha Domalpally, Barbara A Blodi, Yao Liu, Thomas Patrick Lawler, Billy R Hammond, Elizabeth Johnson, Steven T Bailey, Robert Wallace, Karen M Gehrs, Ronald Gangnon, Lesley Tinker, Julie A Mares; Macular Pigment and Retinal Thickness in the Second Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS2), an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2020;61(7):4979.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : Macular pigment (MP), comprised of lutein and zeaxanthins, may protect the retina against age-related changes and pathology by reducing light damage, and protecting against oxidative stress. Retinal thickness has been observed to decrease with age, as a result of apoptosis of photoreceptors and other neural cells. Previously reported relationships between macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and central retinal thickness are inconsistent and limited to cross-sectional studies. We describe relationships of MPOD to thickness of the central subfield (CST) an average of 15 years later.

Methods : This analysis includes 861 eyes of 440 women, aged 53-86 years, with MPOD measured at CAREDS baseline (2001-2004) and CAREDS2 follow-up (2016-2018). Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images were obtained at CAREDS2, and segmented using automated software with manual correction (Heidelberg Spectralis, Heidelberg, Germany). MPOD measures at baseline and follow-up were obtained using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry; measures at 0.5o degrees from the foveal center (reference: 7o) are used in the analyses. Relationships of MPOD to the thickness of the neural retina in the central 1 mm subfield were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE).

Results : Mean CST in the CAREDS2 cohort was unrelated to age, but was 5.1% greater (mean±SD: 266+2 vs. 253+30 um; Ptrend <0.0001) in women in the highest compared to the lowest MPOD quartiles at baseline (range: 0.5 to 1.0 vs. 0 to 0.2 optical density units). Associations were attenuated in women with intermediate or worse age-related macular degeneration. Mean CST was also greater in women who increased MPOD between baseline and follow-up (mean±SD CST among women in lowest vs highest quintiles for MPOD change: 273±3 vs 280±3; Ptrend 0.009.) Eyes with yellow-tinted intra-ocular lenses (IOLs) placed since baseline had slightly higher CST than those with clear IOLs (mean±SD: 255±3 vs 262±2 µm; Ptrend = 0.04).

Conclusions : Greater mean retinal thickness in CAREDS2 participants, after 15 years of follow-up, was associated with higher MPOD, greater increases in MPOD, and the insertion of yellow-tinted IOLs. These results are consistent with previous evidence suggesting that protection against visible light damage may preserve retinal integrity.

This is a 2020 ARVO Annual Meeting abstract.

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