June 2020
Volume 61, Issue 7
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2020
A growth and remodelling model predicts the development of a staphyloma-like bulging of the posterior sclera due to high optic nerve traction during eye movements
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Liam Kenneth Fisher
    NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Ophthalmic Engineering and Innovation Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore
  • Fabian Albert Braeu
    Ophthalmic Engineering and Innovation Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Institute for Computational Mechanics, Technical University of Munich, Germany
  • Xiaofei Wang
    Ophthalmic Engineering and Innovation Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Biomedical Engineering, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, China
  • Dan Milea
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore
    Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore
  • Michael J A Girard
    Ophthalmic Engineering and Innovation Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Liam Fisher, None; Fabian Braeu, None; Xiaofei Wang, None; Dan Milea, None; Michael Girard, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2020, Vol.61, 2686. doi:
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      Liam Kenneth Fisher, Fabian Albert Braeu, Xiaofei Wang, Dan Milea, Michael J A Girard; A growth and remodelling model predicts the development of a staphyloma-like bulging of the posterior sclera due to high optic nerve traction during eye movements. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2020;61(7):2686.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : To establish whether a mechanically motivated model of growth and remodelling can explain the development of posterior staphyloma when optic nerve traction is applied to the globe by a horizontal eye rotation (adduction).

Methods : A three-dimensional finite element model of an eye was constructed. For simplicity, only connective tissues were modelled (corneo-scleral shell + lamina cribrosa). A circumferential arrangement of collagen fibres was embedded in the sclera surrounding the optic disc as is present physiologically. A simulated eye movement was used to induce a relatively high optic nerve traction force at the posterior pole of the eye (temporal quadrant), and the posterior sclera was permitted to grow and remodel in response to this constant loading. To predict the scleral growth in response to optic nerve traction during eye movements, we used a homogenized constrained mixture model of growth and remodelling, selected for its computational simplicity and its record of successfully modelling growth in other soft tissues. Changes in posterior scleral shape were then assessed qualitatively.

Results : The optic nerve traction at the posterior pole of the eye motivated growth, causing a staphyloma-like change in the morphology of the sclera adjacent to the optic disc. Both the clinical characteristic ‘outpouching’ of a scleral region with high curvature and the scleral ‘ridge’ that protrudes inwards at the temporal side of the optic nerve head were observed.

Conclusions : Under conditions of optic nerve traction in eye movements, a mechanically driven model of growth may provide an explanation for some cases of posterior staphyloma. A similar model could also potentially be used to explain other morphological aberrations such as axial elongation or tilted disc. Further work is needed to understand the material or geometric variation that would exacerbate this type of growth in specific individuals.

This is a 2020 ARVO Annual Meeting abstract.

 

Top: Horizontal cross-section of the eye model after growth induced by optic nerve traction. Bottom: Horizontal cross-section of a posterior staphyloma. (Shinohara et al., 2017. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.17-22319. Image reproduced under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License). Similar morphological features are apparent, including a scleral outpouching (arrows) and an interior ridge (arrowheads).

Top: Horizontal cross-section of the eye model after growth induced by optic nerve traction. Bottom: Horizontal cross-section of a posterior staphyloma. (Shinohara et al., 2017. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.17-22319. Image reproduced under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License). Similar morphological features are apparent, including a scleral outpouching (arrows) and an interior ridge (arrowheads).

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