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Di Wu, Kousuke Noda, Miyuki Murata, Ye Liu, Atsuhiro Kanda, Susumu Ishida; Regulation of Spermine Oxidase through Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Signaling in Retinal Glial Cells under Hypoxic Conditions. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2020;61(6):52. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.61.6.52.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Acrolein, a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde, is known to facilitate glial cell migration, one of the pathological hallmarks in diabetic retinopathy. However, cellular mechanisms of acrolein generation in retinal glial cells remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the role and regulation of spermine oxidase (SMOX), one of the enzymes related to acrolein generation, in retinal glial cells under hypoxic condition.
Immunofluorescence staining for SMOX was performed using sections of fibrovascular tissues obtained from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Expression levels of polyamine oxidation enzymes including SMOX were analyzed in rat retinal Müller cell line 5 (TR-MUL5) cells under either normoxic or hypoxic conditions. The transcriptional activity of Smox in TR-MUL5 cells was evaluated using the luciferase assay. Levels of acrolein-conjugated protein, Nε-(3-formyl-3,4-dehydropiperidino) lysine adduct (FDP-Lys), and hydrogen peroxide were measured.
SMOX was localized in glial cells in fibrovascular tissues. Hypoxia induced SMOX production in TR-MUL5 cells, which was suppressed by silencing of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif1a), but not Hif2a. Transcriptional activity of Smox was regulated through HIF-1 binding to hypoxia response elements 2, 3, and 4 sites in the promoter region of Smox. Generation of FDP-Lys and hydrogen peroxide increased in TR-MUL5 cells under hypoxic condition, which was abrogated by SMOX inhibitor MDL72527.
The current data demonstrated that hypoxia regulates production of SMOX, which plays a role in the generation of oxidative stress inducers, through HIF-1α signaling in Müller glial cells under hypoxic condition.
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