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Gerald Liew, Benita Tse, I-Van Ho, Nichole Joachim, Andrew White, Russell Pickford, David Maltby, Bamini Gopinath, Paul Mitchell, Ben Crossett; Acylcarnitine Abnormalities Implicate Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Patients With Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2020;61(8):32. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.61.8.32.
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Abnormalities in lipid metabolism are implicated in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but the pathways involved remain unclear. We assessed whether acylcarnitine concentrations, a marker of lipid and mitochondrial metabolism, differed between patients with AMD and controls.
In this cross-sectional case-control study, cases (n = 81) had neovascular AMD and controls (n = 79) had cataract with no other ocular pathology. Participants were recruited from eye clinics in Western Sydney, Australia, between 2016 and 2018. Plasma blood samples were collected and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analyses performed to identify acylcarnitine concentrations. Acylcarnitine levels were adjusted for age, gender and smoking in multivariable models. Confirmation of key acylcarnitine identities was conducted using high mass accuracy liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
After multivariable adjustment, C2-carnitine (acetylcarnitine) levels were significantly lower in patients with neovascular AMD compared to controls (0.810 ± 0.053 (standard error) compared to 1.060 ± 0.053), p = 0.002). C18:2-DC carnitine (a dicarboxylic acylcarnitine with a 18 carbon side chain and 2 double bonds), levels were significantly higher in patients with neovascular AMD compared to controls (1.244 ± 0.046 compared to 1.013 ± 0.046), p = 0.001). Other acylcarnitines examined were not significantly different between cases and controls.
Reduced plasma levels of C2-carnitine (acetylcarnitine) and increased plasma levels of C18:2-DC carnitine were observed in patients with neovascular AMD compared to controls. These findings suggest mitochondrial dysfunction could be involved in the pathogenesis of neovascular AMD.
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