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Nethrajeith Srinivasalu, Sen Zhang, Renchang Xu, Peter Sol Reinach, Yongchao Su, Yun Zhu, Jia Qu, Xiangtian Zhou; Crosstalk between EP2 and PPARα Modulates Hypoxic Signaling and Myopia Development in Guinea Pigs. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2020;61(8):44. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.61.8.44.
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Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) levels mediate extracellular matrix (ECM) changes by altering the levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) in various tissues. We aimed to determine, in the sclera of guinea pigs, whether a prostanoid receptor (EP2)-linked cAMP modulation affects PPARα and HIF-1α signaling during myopia.
Three-week-old guinea pigs (n = 20 in each group), were monocularly injected with either an EP2 agonist (butaprost 1 µmol/L/10 µmol/L), an antagonist (AH6809 10 µmol/L/30 µmol/L) or a vehicle solution for two weeks during normal ocular growth. Separate sets of animals received these injections and underwent form deprivation (FD) simultaneously. Refraction and axial length (AL) were measured at two weeks, followed by scleral tissue isolation for quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis (n = 10) and cAMP detection (n = 10) using a radioimmunoassay.
Butaprost induced myopia development during normal ocular growth, with proportional increases in AL and cAMP levels. FD did not augment the magnitude of myopia or cAMP elevations in these agonist-injected eyes. AH6809 suppressed cAMP increases and myopia progression during FD, but had no effect in a normal visual environment. Of the diverse set of 27 genes related to cAMP, PPARα and HIF-1α signaling and ECM remodeling, butaprost differentially regulated 15 of them during myopia development. AH6809 injections during FD negated such differential gene expressions.
EP2 agonism increased cAMP and HIF-1α signaling subsequent to declines in PPARα and RXR mRNA levels, which in turn decreased scleral fibrosis and promoted myopia. EP2 antagonism instead inhibited each of these responses. Our data suggest that EP2 suppression may sustain scleral ECM structure and inhibit myopia development.
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