Purchase this article with an account.
Ian M. Erkelens, William R. Bobier; Reflexive Fusional Vergence and Its Plasticity Are Impaired in Convergence Insufficiency. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2020;61(10):21. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.61.10.21.
Download citation file:
© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
We compared the adaptive capacities of reflexive fusional convergence and divergence in 10 participants with untreated convergence insufficiency (CI) to 10 age-matched binocularly normal controls (BNCs) in an effort to elucidate the functional basis of CI.
Vergence responses were monitored binocularly at 250 Hz using video-based infrared oculography, while single and double-step disparity stimuli were viewed dichoptically. The double-step stimuli were designed to induce an adaptive increase in the convergence or divergence reflexive fusional response dynamics.
As expected, convergence responses in the CI population were significantly slower at baseline (BNC 12.0 ± 1.8°/s vs. CI 7.4 ± 2.5°/s; P < 0.001), but divergence response velocities were similar between groups (P = 0.38). Critically, we observed an impaired adaptive change in convergence peak velocities in the CI group when compared to BNCs (–18.2% ± 27.3% vs. 25.4% ± 9.8%; P < 0.001). Adaptive changes in reflexive fusional divergence responses were similar between groups (P > 0.5) and significantly less robust when compared to BNC convergence.
The results support the hypothesis that the adaptive capacities of vergence are related to the strength of the underlying reflexive fusional response. Combined, the evidence suggests that the clinical condition of convergence insufficiency is underpinned by an underdeveloped or perturbated reflexive fusional vergence response mechanism. We relate these observations to different clinical guidelines for the management and treatment of this condition.
This PDF is available to Subscribers Only