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Krista R. Kelly, Sarah E. Morale, Cynthia L. Beauchamp, Lori M. Dao, Becky A. Luu, Eileen E. Birch; Factors Associated with Impaired Motor Skills in Strabismic and Anisometropic Children. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2020;61(10):43. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.61.10.43.
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We evaluated motor skills in children diagnosed with strabismus and anisometropia, with or without amblyopia, and explored factors associated with impairments.
A total of 143 strabismic and anisometropic children 3 to 13 years of age (96 amblyopic, 47 nonamblyopic) and a group of age-similar 35 control children completed Manual Dexterity, Aiming and Catching, and Balance tasks from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition. Raw scores were converted to standardized scores, and amblyopic and nonamblyopic children were compared to controls. Clinical and sensory factors associated with motor performance were also evaluated.
Overall, amblyopic and nonamblyopic children were three to six times more likely than controls to be at risk for or to have a total motor impairment (≤15th percentile). Although amblyopic children scored lower than controls for the Manual Dexterity, Aiming and Catching, and Balance tasks, nonamblyopic children scored lower on Manual Dexterity only. Factors related to manual dexterity deficits include the presence of amblyopia and binocularity deficits typical of these eye conditions. Aiming, catching, and balance deficits were most pronounced in children with an infantile onset of the eye condition, a history of strabismus, and reduced binocularity.
Amblyopia and strabismus disrupt the development of motor ability in children. These findings highlight the widespread effects of discordant binocular input early in life and the visual acuity and binocularity deficits typical of these eye conditions.
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